The effect of high-fiber rye bread enriched with nonesterified plant sterols on major serum lipids and apolipoproteins in normocholesterolemic individuals.Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2012; 22(7):575-82NM
BACKGROUND AND AIMS
Plant sterols are naturally occurring cholesterol-lowering compounds which are industrially incorporated in various foods. A novel food carrier is rye bread, the intake of which can be monitored in trials utilizing newly defined plasma biomarkers. Our aim was to determine the effects of plant sterols incorporated into high-fiber rye bread on serum total and LDL cholesterol, apoB/apoA1 and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratios and lipophilic (pro)vitamins in healthy free-living normocholesterolemic individuals.
METHODS AND RESULTS
In this double-blind, dietary intervention trial the subjects (n=68) were randomized to receive a rye bread (9.3g/d fiber) with added plant sterols (2g/d) (active) or without (control). In the second phase of the study the amount of rye bread was doubled providing 18.6g/d fiber and in the active group 4g/d plant sterols. Compliance was monitored utilizing 3-day food diaries and a novel rye fiber-derived biomarker in plasma. Intake of rye bread enriched with 2g/d of plant sterols during two weeks reduced significantly serum total and LDL cholesterol, apoB/apoA1 and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratios by 5.1%, 8.1%, 8.3% and 7.2%, respectively, compared to controls. Correspondingly, the following two-week treatment with 4g/d of plant sterols resulted in 6.5%, 10.4%, 5.5% and 3.7% difference compared to controls, being most pronounced for LDL (0.33 mmol/L). The treatments did not affect lipophilic (pro)vitamin levels.
Rye bread enriched with 2-4g/d of nonesterified plant sterols beneficially modifies cardiovascular lipid risk factors in normocholesterolemic subjects compared to controls.