Schistosomiasis in travellers and migrants.Travel Med Infect Dis. 2011 Jan; 9(1):6-24.TM
Schistosomiasis is a tropical parasitic disease caused by blood-dwelling fluke worms of the genus Schistosoma whose infective stages, the cercariae, are amplified through mollusks acting as intermediate hosts. People are infected when exposed to fresh water containing cercariae that penetrate the skin. There are however considerable differences in intensity of infection and morbidity, depending on the pattern of exposure and the infective species. In travellers, schistosomiasis differs substantially from infection in endemic populations in many aspects: geography, morbidity, treatment and prevention. In migrants, schistosomiasis manifests itself in a way more akin to what is seen in endemic populations. In this paper we will review the specific issues associated with schistosomiasis in travellers and migrants, with emphasis on the acute disease manifestations in non-immune persons, and on neuroschistosomiasis as a potential severe complication. We discuss new trends in diagnosis and treatment with respect to the specific disease stage, and summarize precautionary measures and novel ways to prevent Schistosoma infection in travellers.