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Tracking diffusion of conditioning water in single wheat kernels of different hardnesses by near infrared hyperspectral imaging.
Anal Chim Acta. 2011 Feb 07; 686(1-2):64-75.AC

Abstract

The combination of near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging and chemometrics was used to follow the diffusion of conditioning water over time in wheat kernels of different hardnesses. Conditioning was attempted with deionised water (dH(2)O) and deuterium oxide (D(2)O). The images were recorded at different conditioning times (0-36 h) from 1000 to 2498 nm with a line scan imaging system. After multivariate cleaning and spectral pre-processing (either multiplicative scatter correction or standard normal variate and Savitzky-Golay smoothing) six principal components (PCs) were calculated. These were studied visually interactively as score images and score plots. As no clear clusters were present in the score plots, changes in the score plots were investigated by means of classification gradients made within the respective PCs. Classes were selected in the direction of a PC (from positive to negative or negative to positive score values) in almost equal segments. Subsequently loading line plots were used to provide a spectroscopic explanation of the classification gradients. It was shown that the first PC explained kernel curvature. PC3 was shown to be related to a moisture-starch contrast and could explain the progress of water uptake. The positive influence of protein was also observed. The behaviour of soft, hard and very hard kernels was different in this respect, with the uptake of water observed much earlier in the soft kernels than in the harder ones. The harder kernels also showed a stronger influence of protein in the loading line plots. Difference spectra showed interpretable changes over time for water but not for D(2)O which had a too low signal in the wavelength range used. NIR hyperspectral imaging together with exploratory chemometrics, as detailed in this paper, may have wider applications than merely conditioning studies.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa. mman@sun.ac.zaNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21237309

Citation

Manley, Marena, et al. "Tracking Diffusion of Conditioning Water in Single Wheat Kernels of Different Hardnesses By Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging." Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 686, no. 1-2, 2011, pp. 64-75.
Manley M, du Toit G, Geladi P. Tracking diffusion of conditioning water in single wheat kernels of different hardnesses by near infrared hyperspectral imaging. Anal Chim Acta. 2011;686(1-2):64-75.
Manley, M., du Toit, G., & Geladi, P. (2011). Tracking diffusion of conditioning water in single wheat kernels of different hardnesses by near infrared hyperspectral imaging. Analytica Chimica Acta, 686(1-2), 64-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2010.11.042
Manley M, du Toit G, Geladi P. Tracking Diffusion of Conditioning Water in Single Wheat Kernels of Different Hardnesses By Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging. Anal Chim Acta. 2011 Feb 7;686(1-2):64-75. PubMed PMID: 21237309.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Tracking diffusion of conditioning water in single wheat kernels of different hardnesses by near infrared hyperspectral imaging. AU - Manley,Marena, AU - du Toit,Gerida, AU - Geladi,Paul, Y1 - 2010/11/26/ PY - 2010/06/24/received PY - 2010/10/08/revised PY - 2010/11/19/accepted PY - 2011/1/18/entrez PY - 2011/1/18/pubmed PY - 2011/4/29/medline SP - 64 EP - 75 JF - Analytica chimica acta JO - Anal Chim Acta VL - 686 IS - 1-2 N2 - The combination of near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging and chemometrics was used to follow the diffusion of conditioning water over time in wheat kernels of different hardnesses. Conditioning was attempted with deionised water (dH(2)O) and deuterium oxide (D(2)O). The images were recorded at different conditioning times (0-36 h) from 1000 to 2498 nm with a line scan imaging system. After multivariate cleaning and spectral pre-processing (either multiplicative scatter correction or standard normal variate and Savitzky-Golay smoothing) six principal components (PCs) were calculated. These were studied visually interactively as score images and score plots. As no clear clusters were present in the score plots, changes in the score plots were investigated by means of classification gradients made within the respective PCs. Classes were selected in the direction of a PC (from positive to negative or negative to positive score values) in almost equal segments. Subsequently loading line plots were used to provide a spectroscopic explanation of the classification gradients. It was shown that the first PC explained kernel curvature. PC3 was shown to be related to a moisture-starch contrast and could explain the progress of water uptake. The positive influence of protein was also observed. The behaviour of soft, hard and very hard kernels was different in this respect, with the uptake of water observed much earlier in the soft kernels than in the harder ones. The harder kernels also showed a stronger influence of protein in the loading line plots. Difference spectra showed interpretable changes over time for water but not for D(2)O which had a too low signal in the wavelength range used. NIR hyperspectral imaging together with exploratory chemometrics, as detailed in this paper, may have wider applications than merely conditioning studies. SN - 1873-4324 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21237309/Tracking_diffusion_of_conditioning_water_in_single_wheat_kernels_of_different_hardnesses_by_near_infrared_hyperspectral_imaging_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0003-2670(10)01457-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -