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Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, V: effects of lutein, zeaxanthin, and n-3 fatty acids on retinal sensitivity to blue-light-induced damage.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jun 06; 52(7):3934-42.IO

Abstract

PURPOSE

Blue-light photooxidative damage has been implicated in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The macular pigment xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) and n-3 fatty acids may reduce this damage and lower the risk of AMD. This study investigated the effects of the lifelong absence of xanthophylls followed by L or Z supplementation, combined with the effects of n-3 fatty acid deficiency, on acute blue-light photochemical damage.

METHODS

Subjects included eight rhesus monkeys with no lifelong intake of xanthophylls and no detectable macular pigment. Of these, four had low n-3 fatty acid intake and four had adequate intakes. Control subjects had typical L, Z, and n-3 fatty acid intake. Retinas received 150-μm-diameter exposures of low-power 476-nm laser light at 0.5 mm (∼2°) eccentricity, which is adjacent to the macular pigment peak, and parafoveally at 1.5 mm (∼6°). Exposures of xanthophyll-free animals were repeated after supplementation with pure L or Z for 22 to 28 weeks. Ophthalmoscopically visible lesion areas were plotted as a function of exposure energy, with greater slopes of the regression lines indicating greater sensitivity to damage.

RESULTS

In control animals, the fovea was less sensitive to blue-light-induced damage than the parafovea. Foveal protection was absent in xanthophyll-free animals but was evident after supplementation. In the parafovea, animals low in n-3 fatty acids showed greater sensitivity to damage than animals with adequate levels.

CONCLUSIONS

After long-term xanthophyll deficiency, L or Z supplementation protected the fovea from blue light-induced damage, whereas adequate n-3 fatty acid levels reduced the damage in the parafovea.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Pennsylvania College of Optometry, Salus University, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21245404

Citation

Barker, Felix M., et al. "Nutritional Manipulation of Primate Retinas, V: Effects of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and N-3 Fatty Acids On Retinal Sensitivity to Blue-light-induced Damage." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 52, no. 7, 2011, pp. 3934-42.
Barker FM, Snodderly DM, Johnson EJ, et al. Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, V: effects of lutein, zeaxanthin, and n-3 fatty acids on retinal sensitivity to blue-light-induced damage. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52(7):3934-42.
Barker, F. M., Snodderly, D. M., Johnson, E. J., Schalch, W., Koepcke, W., Gerss, J., & Neuringer, M. (2011). Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, V: effects of lutein, zeaxanthin, and n-3 fatty acids on retinal sensitivity to blue-light-induced damage. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 52(7), 3934-42. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.10-5898
Barker FM, et al. Nutritional Manipulation of Primate Retinas, V: Effects of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and N-3 Fatty Acids On Retinal Sensitivity to Blue-light-induced Damage. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jun 6;52(7):3934-42. PubMed PMID: 21245404.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, V: effects of lutein, zeaxanthin, and n-3 fatty acids on retinal sensitivity to blue-light-induced damage. AU - Barker,Felix M,2nd AU - Snodderly,D Max, AU - Johnson,Elizabeth J, AU - Schalch,Wolfgang, AU - Koepcke,Wolfgang, AU - Gerss,Joachim, AU - Neuringer,Martha, Y1 - 2011/06/06/ PY - 2011/1/20/entrez PY - 2011/1/20/pubmed PY - 2011/8/17/medline SP - 3934 EP - 42 JF - Investigative ophthalmology & visual science JO - Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. VL - 52 IS - 7 N2 - PURPOSE: Blue-light photooxidative damage has been implicated in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The macular pigment xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) and n-3 fatty acids may reduce this damage and lower the risk of AMD. This study investigated the effects of the lifelong absence of xanthophylls followed by L or Z supplementation, combined with the effects of n-3 fatty acid deficiency, on acute blue-light photochemical damage. METHODS: Subjects included eight rhesus monkeys with no lifelong intake of xanthophylls and no detectable macular pigment. Of these, four had low n-3 fatty acid intake and four had adequate intakes. Control subjects had typical L, Z, and n-3 fatty acid intake. Retinas received 150-μm-diameter exposures of low-power 476-nm laser light at 0.5 mm (∼2°) eccentricity, which is adjacent to the macular pigment peak, and parafoveally at 1.5 mm (∼6°). Exposures of xanthophyll-free animals were repeated after supplementation with pure L or Z for 22 to 28 weeks. Ophthalmoscopically visible lesion areas were plotted as a function of exposure energy, with greater slopes of the regression lines indicating greater sensitivity to damage. RESULTS: In control animals, the fovea was less sensitive to blue-light-induced damage than the parafovea. Foveal protection was absent in xanthophyll-free animals but was evident after supplementation. In the parafovea, animals low in n-3 fatty acids showed greater sensitivity to damage than animals with adequate levels. CONCLUSIONS: After long-term xanthophyll deficiency, L or Z supplementation protected the fovea from blue light-induced damage, whereas adequate n-3 fatty acid levels reduced the damage in the parafovea. SN - 1552-5783 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21245404/Nutritional_manipulation_of_primate_retinas_V:_effects_of_lutein_zeaxanthin_and_n_3_fatty_acids_on_retinal_sensitivity_to_blue_light_induced_damage_ L2 - https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1167/iovs.10-5898 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -