Effects of choice white grease and soybean oil on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality of growing-finishing pigs.J Anim Sci. 2011 Feb; 89(2):404-13.JA
A total of 144 barrows and gilts (initial BW = 44 kg) were used in an 82-d experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary fat source and duration of feeding fat on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. Dietary treatments were a corn-soybean meal control diet with no added fat and a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments with 5% choice white grease (CWG) or soybean oil (SBO) fed from d 0 to 26, 54, 68, or 82. At the conclusion of the study (d 82), pigs were slaughtered, carcass characteristics were measured, and backfat and jowl fat samples were collected. Fatty acid analysis was performed, and iodine value (IV) was calculated for all backfat and jowl fat samples. Pigs fed SBO tended to have increased (P = 0.07) ADG compared with pigs fed CWG. For pigs fed SBO, increasing feeding duration increased (quadratic, P < 0.01) ADG and G:F. For pigs fed CWG, increasing feeding duration improved (quadratic, P < 0.01) G:F. For pigs fed SBO or CWG, increasing feeding duration increased carcass yield (quadratic, P < 0.04) and HCW (quadratic, P < 0.02). Dietary fat source and feeding duration did not affect backfat depth, loin depth, or lean percentage. As expected, barrows had greater ADG and ADFI (P < 0.01) and poorer G:F (P = 0.03) than gilts. Barrows also had greater last-rib (P = 0.04) and 10th-rib backfat (P < 0.01) and reduced loin depth and lean percentage (P < 0.01) compared with gilts. Increasing feeding duration of CWG or SBO increased (P < 0.10) C18:2n-6, PUFA, PUFA:SFA ratio, and IV in jowl fat and backfat. Pigs fed SBO had greater (P < 0.01) C18:2n-6, PUFA, PUFA:SFA ratio, and IV but decreased (P < 0.01) C18:1 cis-9, C16:0, SFA, and MUFA concentrations compared with pigs fed CWG in jowl fat and backfat. Barrows had decreased (P = 0.03) IV in jowl fat and backfat compared with gilts. In summary, adding SBO or CWG increased the amount of unsaturated fat deposited. Increasing feeding duration of dietary fat increases the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, which leads to softer carcass fat.