Prevalence of norovirus GII-4 antibodies in Finnish children.J Med Virol. 2011 Mar; 83(3):525-31.JM
Noroviruses (NoVs) are the second most common cause of viral gastroenteritis after rotavirus in children. NoV genotype GII-4 has emerged as the major type not only in outbreaks of NoV gastroenteritis but also endemic gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. Using baculovirus-insect cell system virus-like particles (VLPs) of NoV genotype GII-4 and an uncommon genotype GII-12 were produced. These VLPs were used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for detection of NoV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies in 492 serum specimens from Finnish children 0-14 years of age collected between 2006 and 2008. NoV IgG antibody prevalence was 47.3% in the age group 7-23 months and increased up to 91.2% after the age of 5 years. Avidity of NoV IgG antibodies was low in the primary infections while high avidity antibodies were detected in the recurrent infections of the older children. In GII-4 infections, the homologous antibody response to GII-4 VLPs was stronger than to GII-12 VLPs but cross-reactivity between GII-4 and GII-12 was observed. Binding of GII-4 VLPs to a putative carbohydrate antigen receptor H-type 3 could be blocked by sera from children not infected with NoV during a waterborne outbreak of acute gastroenteritis. Therefore, protection against NoV infection correlated with strong blocking activity.