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The stress-response-dampening effects of placebo.
Horm Behav. 2011 Apr; 59(4):465-72.HB

Abstract

This experiment used both biological and self-report measures to examine how alcohol modifies stress responses, and to test whether the interaction between these two factors alters risk-taking in healthy young adults. Participants were divided into stress or no-stress conditions and then further divided into one of three beverage groups. The alcohol group consumed a binge-drinking level of alcohol; the placebo group consumed soda, but believed they were consuming alcohol; the sober group was aware that they were not consuming alcohol. Following beverage consumption, the stress group was subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) while the no-stress group completed crossword puzzles; all participants subsequently completed a computerized risk-taking task. Exposure to the TSST significantly increased salivary levels of the hormone cortisol and the enzyme alpha-amylase, as well as subjective self-ratings of anxiety and tension. In the stress condition, both placebo and intoxicated groups reported less tension and anxiety, and exhibited a smaller increase in cortisol, following the TSST than did the sober group. Thus, the expectation of receiving alcohol altered subjective and physiological responses to the stressor. Neither alcohol nor stress increased risk taking, however the sober group demonstrated lower risk-taking on the computer task on the second session. These findings clearly demonstrate that the expectation of alcohol (placebo) alters subsequent physiological responses to stress.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA. iris.balodis@yale.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21272586

Citation

Balodis, Iris M., et al. "The Stress-response-dampening Effects of Placebo." Hormones and Behavior, vol. 59, no. 4, 2011, pp. 465-72.
Balodis IM, Wynne-Edwards KE, Olmstead MC. The stress-response-dampening effects of placebo. Horm Behav. 2011;59(4):465-72.
Balodis, I. M., Wynne-Edwards, K. E., & Olmstead, M. C. (2011). The stress-response-dampening effects of placebo. Hormones and Behavior, 59(4), 465-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2011.01.004
Balodis IM, Wynne-Edwards KE, Olmstead MC. The Stress-response-dampening Effects of Placebo. Horm Behav. 2011;59(4):465-72. PubMed PMID: 21272586.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The stress-response-dampening effects of placebo. AU - Balodis,Iris M, AU - Wynne-Edwards,Katherine E, AU - Olmstead,Mary C, Y1 - 2011/01/24/ PY - 2010/09/09/received PY - 2011/01/13/revised PY - 2011/01/18/accepted PY - 2011/1/29/entrez PY - 2011/1/29/pubmed PY - 2011/8/16/medline SP - 465 EP - 72 JF - Hormones and behavior JO - Horm Behav VL - 59 IS - 4 N2 - This experiment used both biological and self-report measures to examine how alcohol modifies stress responses, and to test whether the interaction between these two factors alters risk-taking in healthy young adults. Participants were divided into stress or no-stress conditions and then further divided into one of three beverage groups. The alcohol group consumed a binge-drinking level of alcohol; the placebo group consumed soda, but believed they were consuming alcohol; the sober group was aware that they were not consuming alcohol. Following beverage consumption, the stress group was subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) while the no-stress group completed crossword puzzles; all participants subsequently completed a computerized risk-taking task. Exposure to the TSST significantly increased salivary levels of the hormone cortisol and the enzyme alpha-amylase, as well as subjective self-ratings of anxiety and tension. In the stress condition, both placebo and intoxicated groups reported less tension and anxiety, and exhibited a smaller increase in cortisol, following the TSST than did the sober group. Thus, the expectation of receiving alcohol altered subjective and physiological responses to the stressor. Neither alcohol nor stress increased risk taking, however the sober group demonstrated lower risk-taking on the computer task on the second session. These findings clearly demonstrate that the expectation of alcohol (placebo) alters subsequent physiological responses to stress. SN - 1095-6867 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21272586/The_stress_response_dampening_effects_of_placebo_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0018-506X(11)00006-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -