A novel mutation causing pseudohypoparathyroidism 1A with congenital hypothyroidism and osteoma cutis.J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2009; 1(5):244-7.JC
Various inactivating mutations in guanine nucleotide-binding protein, alpha-stimulating activity polypeptide1 (GNAS1) gene have been described with poor phenotype correlation. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a) results from an inactivating mutation in the GNAS1 gene. Hormone resistance occurs not only to parathyroid hormone (PTH), but typically also to other hormones which signal via G protein coupled receptors including thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins, and growth hormone releasing hormone. In addition, the phenotype of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is observed, which may include short stature, round facies, brachydactyly, obesity, ectopic soft tissue or dermal ossification (osteoma cutis) and psychomotor retardation with variable expression. We present a 2-year-old boy with PHP 1A who initially presented at age 3 weeks with congenital hypothyroidism. By 17 months of age, he manifested osteoma cutis, psychomotor retardation, obesity, brachydactyly and resistance to PTH with normocalcemia and mild hyperphosphatemia. Genetic analysis revealed a novel mutation in exon 13 of GNAS1 in our patient. This mutation, c.1100_1101insA, resulted in a frameshift and premature truncation of bases downstream. This mutation was also found in the mother of this patient who was also noted to have short stature, obesity, brachydactyly and non progressive osteoma cutis, but no hormone resistance.We report a novel heterozygous mutation causing PHP1A with PTH and TSH resistance and AHO which has not been described previously. PHP1A is also a rare presentation of congenital hypothyroidism.