Humoral response to the influenza A H1N1/09 monovalent AS03-adjuvanted vaccine in immunocompromised patients.Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 15; 52(2):248-56.CI
Few data are available regarding the immunogenicity and safety of the pandemic influenza vaccine in immunocompromised patients. We evaluated the humoral response to the influenza A H1N1/09 vaccine in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients, in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and in healthy individuals.
Patients scheduled to receive the pandemic influenza vaccine were invited to participate. All participants received the influenza A H1N1/09 AS03-adjuvanted vaccine containing 3.75 μg of hemagglutinin. SOT recipients and HIV-infected patients received 2 doses at 3-week intervals, whereas control subjects received 1 dose. Blood samples were taken at day 0, day 21, and day 49 after vaccination. Antibody responses were measured with the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA) and a microneutralization assay.
Twenty-nine SOT recipients, 30 HIV-infected patients, and 30 healthy individuals were included in the study. Seroconversion measured by HIA was observed in 15 (52%) of 29 SOT recipients both at day 21 and day 49; in 23 (77%) of 30 at day 21 and 26 (87%) of 30 at day 49 in HIV-infected patients, and in 20 (67%) of 30 at day 21 and in 23 (77%) of 30 at day 49 in control subjects (P = .12 at day 21 and P = .009 at day 49, between groups). Geometric means of antibody titers were not significantly different between groups at day 21 or at day 49.
Influenza A H1N1/09 vaccine elicited a similar antibody response in HIV-infected individuals and in control subjects, whereas SOT recipients had an overall lower response. A second dose of the vaccine only moderately improved vaccine immunogenicity in HIV-infected patients.