Neuroprotective effect of oral S/B remedy (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Bupleurum scorzonerifolfium Willd) on iron-induced neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of rat brain.J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Apr 12; 134(3):884-91.JE
AIM OF THE STUDY
S/B remedy prepared from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Bupleurum scorzonerifolfium Willd, two herbals of Xiao-Tsai-Hu-Tang or Sho-Saiko-To (TJ-9), contains active flavonoids. In this study, the protective effect of S/B remedy on iron-induced neurodegeneration was investigated in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of rat brain.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The antioxidative activity of S/B remedy was studied using brain homogenates incubated with ferrous citrate (iron, 1M), S/B remedy, Trolox and melatonin. Furthermore, a Parkinsonian animal model by an intranigral infusion of iron in the anesthetized rats was employed to investigate the protective effect of S/B remedy in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.
Our in vitro studies showed that S/B remedy was more potent than melatonin and equal to trolox in inhibiting iron-induced lipid peroxidation of brain homogenates. Our in vivo studies found that oral administration of S/B remedy dose-dependently attenuated iron-elevated lipid peroxidation in the infused substantia nigra (SN) and iron-depleted dopamine levels in the ipsilateral striatum. Furthermore, iron-induced reductions in glutathione (GSH) content and increases in GSSG (oxidized GSH)/GSH ratio in the infused SN were inhibited in S/B remedy-treated rats. Systemic S/B remedy attenuated the iron-induced increases in heme-oxygenase-1 levels and α-synuclein aggregation in the infused SN. Moreover, S/B remedy reduced iron-induced apoptosis via attenuating mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, S/B remedy was anti-inflammatory as indicated by the attenuation of iron-induced elevations in inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclo-oxygenase II levels as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein (a biological marker of astrocytes) and ED-1 (a protein indicative of activated microglia) levels in the infused SN of S/B remedy-treated rats.
These findings suggest that oral administration of S/B remedy is protective against iron-induced neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of rat brain. Therefore, S/B remedy may be therapeutically useful for the treatment of CNS neurodegenerative diseases.