Antioxidant activity of hard wheat flour, dough and bread prepared using various processes with the addition of different phenolic acids.J Sci Food Agric. 2011 Mar 15; 91(4):604-8.JS
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of baking process on the antioxidant activity of different phenolic acids. Antioxidant potential was determined using the β-carotene-bleaching activity assay, and free phenolic acid levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Four phenolic acids, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, syringic acid and gallic acid, were mixed with wheat flour at a concentration of 4.44 µmol/g of flour.
Type of phenolic acid and processing affected antioxidant activity. Of the phenolic acids, caffeic acid had the most pronounced antioxidant effect. The ranking of phenolic acids in terms of their antioxidant activity in fermented dough and bread was similar to that before processing, i.e. syringic acid < gallic acid < ferulic acid < caffeic acid. The content of ferulic acid was greater than that of the other phenolic acids after baking. Antioxidant activity and free phenolic acid content were reduced by mixing but recovered after fermentation and baking. Phenolic acid recovery after baking was 74-80%.
Phenolic acids retain their antioxidant activity after the baking process, which has potential health benefits for consumers. Elucidation of interactions between the baking process and phenolic acids is important for the development of functional foods.