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Eye tracking unconscious face-to-face confrontations: dominance motives prolong gaze to masked angry faces.
Psychol Sci. 2011 Mar; 22(3):314-9.PS

Abstract

In primates, dominance/submission relationships are generally automatically and nonaggressively established in face-to-face confrontations. Researchers have argued that this process involves an explicit psychological stress-manipulation mechanism: Striding with a threatening expression, while keeping direct eye contact, outstresses rivals so that they submissively avert their gaze. In contrast, researchers have proposed a reflexive and implicit modulation of face-to-face confrontation in humans, on the basis of evidence that dominant and submissive individuals exhibit vigilant and avoidant responses, respectively, to facial anger in masked emotional Stroop tasks. However, these tasks do not provide an ecologically valid index of gaze behavior. Therefore, we directly measured gaze responses to masked angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions with a saccade-latency paradigm and found that increased dominance traits predict a more prolonged gaze to (or reluctance to avert gaze from) masked anger. Furthermore, greater non-dominance-related reward sensitivity predicts more persistent gaze to masked happiness. These results strongly suggest that implicit and reflexive mechanisms underlie dominant and submissive gaze behavior in face-to-face confrontations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, Utrecht 3584 CS, The Netherlands. d.terburg@uu.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21303993

Citation

Terburg, David, et al. "Eye Tracking Unconscious Face-to-face Confrontations: Dominance Motives Prolong Gaze to Masked Angry Faces." Psychological Science, vol. 22, no. 3, 2011, pp. 314-9.
Terburg D, Hooiveld N, Aarts H, et al. Eye tracking unconscious face-to-face confrontations: dominance motives prolong gaze to masked angry faces. Psychol Sci. 2011;22(3):314-9.
Terburg, D., Hooiveld, N., Aarts, H., Kenemans, J. L., & van Honk, J. (2011). Eye tracking unconscious face-to-face confrontations: dominance motives prolong gaze to masked angry faces. Psychological Science, 22(3), 314-9. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611398492
Terburg D, et al. Eye Tracking Unconscious Face-to-face Confrontations: Dominance Motives Prolong Gaze to Masked Angry Faces. Psychol Sci. 2011;22(3):314-9. PubMed PMID: 21303993.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Eye tracking unconscious face-to-face confrontations: dominance motives prolong gaze to masked angry faces. AU - Terburg,David, AU - Hooiveld,Nicole, AU - Aarts,Henk, AU - Kenemans,J Leon, AU - van Honk,Jack, Y1 - 2011/02/08/ PY - 2011/2/10/entrez PY - 2011/2/10/pubmed PY - 2011/8/5/medline SP - 314 EP - 9 JF - Psychological science JO - Psychol Sci VL - 22 IS - 3 N2 - In primates, dominance/submission relationships are generally automatically and nonaggressively established in face-to-face confrontations. Researchers have argued that this process involves an explicit psychological stress-manipulation mechanism: Striding with a threatening expression, while keeping direct eye contact, outstresses rivals so that they submissively avert their gaze. In contrast, researchers have proposed a reflexive and implicit modulation of face-to-face confrontation in humans, on the basis of evidence that dominant and submissive individuals exhibit vigilant and avoidant responses, respectively, to facial anger in masked emotional Stroop tasks. However, these tasks do not provide an ecologically valid index of gaze behavior. Therefore, we directly measured gaze responses to masked angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions with a saccade-latency paradigm and found that increased dominance traits predict a more prolonged gaze to (or reluctance to avert gaze from) masked anger. Furthermore, greater non-dominance-related reward sensitivity predicts more persistent gaze to masked happiness. These results strongly suggest that implicit and reflexive mechanisms underlie dominant and submissive gaze behavior in face-to-face confrontations. SN - 1467-9280 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21303993/Eye_tracking_unconscious_face_to_face_confrontations:_dominance_motives_prolong_gaze_to_masked_angry_faces_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956797611398492?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -