C1-symmetric carbohydrate diphosphite ligands for asymmetric Pd-allylic alkylation reactions. Study of the key Pd-allyl intermediates.Dalton Trans. 2011 Mar 28; 40(12):2852-60.DT
A series of C(1)-symmetrical 1,3-diphosphite ligands with a furanoside backbone have been applied in the Pd-catalysed asymmetric allylic alkylation of mono- and disubstituted linear substrates. These diphosphite ligands were designed by selective modification of the successful diphosphite ligand L1a with the 6-deoxy-1,2-O-isopropylidene-glucofuranose backbone in order to study the effect of the ligand structure on the catalytic performance. The effect of the solvent, the substrate/metal ratio and ligand/metal ratio were also investigated. The results in the Pd-allylic alkylation of rac-1,3-diphenyl-3-acetoxyprop-1-ene showed that the ligand structure and the reaction conditions had a considerable effect on enantioselectivity and on the kinetics of the reaction producing the kinetic resolution of the substrate. The alkylated product 2 was therefore obtained in 95% ee at 53% conversion and the enantiopure substrate 1 was recovered in 99.9% ee. Furthermore, the effect of the ligand structure and solvent were also observed in the Pd-allylic alkylation of monosubstituted 1-phenyl-3-acetoxyprop-1-ene. The use of a pro-chiral nucleophile was also explored in this reaction leading to excellent regioselectivities but moderate enantioselectivities. Finally, in order to determine how the ligand structure affected the chiral pocket of the Pd-π-allyl intermediates, the complexes [Pd(η(3)-C(15)H(13))(L)]PF(6), where L = L1a, L5-L8a, were synthesised and characterised by NMR spectroscopy.