Is there a relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and manic symptoms among children with mental retardation of unknown etiology?Compr Psychiatry. 2011 Nov-Dec; 52(6):644-9.CP
Mental retardation (MR) is common and lifelong. In children and adolescents with MR, the rate of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder is higher than that in the general population. However, there are no previous sufficient data that exist in establishing a relationship between ADHD and manic symptoms. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between manic symptoms and ADHD as well as oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in children with MR of unknown etiology (MR-UE). A total of 167 children with MR-UE attending a rehabilitation and training school in Erzurum, Turkey, were included in the study. We administered the Child Disruptive Behavior Screening and Rating Scale related to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition and the Young Mania Rating Scale-Parent Version (P-YMRS) to parents. The age range of children and adolescents with MR-UE was between 5 and 21 years, with a mean age of 11.13 ± 3.75 years. In total, 5.8% of children and adolescents with MR-UE showed a border intelligence quotient (IQ), with 58.4% having a mild IQ, 29.2% having a moderate IQ, and 6.6% having severe IQ. According to the Child Disruptive Behavior Screening and Rating Scale related to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, 40.1% of children and adolescents with MR-UE had inattention, 19.9% had hyperactivity, 28.7% had ODD, and 13.3% had CD. A total of 7.2% of the children and adolescents with MR-UE had probable mania, and 1.8% had mania according to Young Mania Rating Scale-Parent Version. A positive correlation existed between the mean scores of Young Mania Rating Scale-Parent Version and the mean scores of inattention, hyperactivity, ODD, and CD (P = .000). Hyperactivity and ODD were predictors of being manic/probably manic. Diagnosing psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with MR-UE is difficult but essential for better functioning. Manic symptoms and disruptive behaviors as well as ADHD symptoms were prevalent among children and adolescents with MR-UE and hyperactivity, and oppositional-defiant symptoms were predictors of manic symptoms in these patients.