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Low-carbohydrate diet scores and risk of type 2 diabetes in men.
Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 93(4):844-50AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Fat and protein sources may influence whether low-carbohydrate diets are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to compare the associations of 3 low-carbohydrate diet scores with incident T2D.

DESIGN

A prospective cohort study was conducted in participants from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study who were free of T2D, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline (n = 40,475) for up to 20 y. Cumulative averages of 3 low-carbohydrate diet scores (high total protein and fat, high animal protein and fat, and high vegetable protein and fat) were calculated every 4 y from food-frequency questionnaires and were associated with incident T2D by using Cox models.

RESULTS

We documented 2689 cases of T2D during follow-up. After adjustments for age, smoking, physical activity, coffee intake, alcohol intake, family history of T2D, total energy intake, and body mass index, the score for high animal protein and fat was associated with an increased risk of T2D [top compared with bottom quintile; hazard ratio (HR): 1.37; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.58; P for trend < 0.01]. Adjustment for red and processed meat attenuated this association (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.30; P for trend = 0.20). A high score for vegetable protein and fat was not significantly associated with the risk of T2D overall but was inversely associated with T2D in men aged <65 y (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.92; P for trend = 0.01, P for interaction = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

A score representing a low-carbohydrate diet high in animal protein and fat was positively associated with the risk of T2D in men. Low-carbohydrate diets should obtain protein and fat from foods other than red and processed meat.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21310828

Citation

de Koning, Lawrence, et al. "Low-carbohydrate Diet Scores and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 93, no. 4, 2011, pp. 844-50.
de Koning L, Fung TT, Liao X, et al. Low-carbohydrate diet scores and risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(4):844-50.
de Koning, L., Fung, T. T., Liao, X., Chiuve, S. E., Rimm, E. B., Willett, W. C., ... Hu, F. B. (2011). Low-carbohydrate diet scores and risk of type 2 diabetes in men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 93(4), pp. 844-50. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.004333.
de Koning L, et al. Low-carbohydrate Diet Scores and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(4):844-50. PubMed PMID: 21310828.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Low-carbohydrate diet scores and risk of type 2 diabetes in men. AU - de Koning,Lawrence, AU - Fung,Teresa T, AU - Liao,Xiaomei, AU - Chiuve,Stephanie E, AU - Rimm,Eric B, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - Spiegelman,Donna, AU - Hu,Frank B, Y1 - 2011/02/10/ PY - 2011/2/12/entrez PY - 2011/2/12/pubmed PY - 2011/5/27/medline SP - 844 EP - 50 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 93 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Fat and protein sources may influence whether low-carbohydrate diets are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the associations of 3 low-carbohydrate diet scores with incident T2D. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted in participants from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study who were free of T2D, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline (n = 40,475) for up to 20 y. Cumulative averages of 3 low-carbohydrate diet scores (high total protein and fat, high animal protein and fat, and high vegetable protein and fat) were calculated every 4 y from food-frequency questionnaires and were associated with incident T2D by using Cox models. RESULTS: We documented 2689 cases of T2D during follow-up. After adjustments for age, smoking, physical activity, coffee intake, alcohol intake, family history of T2D, total energy intake, and body mass index, the score for high animal protein and fat was associated with an increased risk of T2D [top compared with bottom quintile; hazard ratio (HR): 1.37; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.58; P for trend < 0.01]. Adjustment for red and processed meat attenuated this association (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.30; P for trend = 0.20). A high score for vegetable protein and fat was not significantly associated with the risk of T2D overall but was inversely associated with T2D in men aged <65 y (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.92; P for trend = 0.01, P for interaction = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A score representing a low-carbohydrate diet high in animal protein and fat was positively associated with the risk of T2D in men. Low-carbohydrate diets should obtain protein and fat from foods other than red and processed meat. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21310828/Low_carbohydrate_diet_scores_and_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_in_men_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.110.004333 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -