Effect of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs.J Anim Sci. 2011 Jul; 89(7):2096-105.JA
The main objective of the present investigation was to study the impact of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the small intestine and total tract of growing pigs. Eight pigs (initial BW, 34.5 ± 0.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Pigs were cannulated and housed individually in metabolism pens during sample collection. The 4 cereal-based diets were nonfermented liquid barley (NFLB), nonfermented liquid wheat (NFLW), fermented liquid barley (FLB), and fermented liquid wheat (FLW). The fermented feeds were prepared by storing the dietary cereals (barley and wheat) and water [1:2.75 (wt/wt)] in a closed tank at 25 °C for 2 d, after which 50% of the volume was removed and replaced with an equal amount of fresh cereals and water after each afternoon meal. At the time of feeding (0730 and 1430 h), the remaining dietary ingredients were added. Water was added to the dry nonfermented feeds [1:1 (wt/wt)] immediately before feeding. The fermentation process reduced the amount of DM in both cereals (P<0.001), whereas the amount of DM was similar (P=0.626) between the fermented cereals. There was an interaction of cereal and treatment for ileal flow of DM (P=0.014), OM (P=0.013), and protein (P=0.006), which were less in pigs fed the NFLB than the FLB diets, but unchanged in pigs fed the NFLW and FLW diets. Conversely, the ileal flow of protein was similar (P=0.605) in pigs fed the barley diets (average, 47.5 ± 1.7 g/kg of DMI) and increased with the FLW diet compared with the NFLW diet (43 vs. 35 g/kg of DMI, respectively). Ileal fat and CH(2)O digestibilities were 7.6 (P=0.002) and 8.9% (P<0.001) greater, respectively, when pigs were fed wheat compared with the barley-based diets, and the ileal digestibility of CH(2)O was greater when pigs were fed the fermented than nonfermented diets (86.5 vs. 84.5%, respectively; P<0.001). Fermentation reduced (P<0.0001) the fecal excretion of DM, OM, and protein in pigs fed the barley diet, but not when fed the wheat-based diet (P=0.305). Fermentation had no effect (P=0.243) on the fecal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides in either of the cereals but their digestibility was 10.0% greater (P<0.001) in pigs fed wheat than the barley-based diets. In conclusion, fermentation of cereal before feeding altered the dietary composition and influenced flow and composition of polysaccharides and other macronutrients at the ileum and in feces to a larger extent for barley than wheat.