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Arsenic: toxicity, oxidative stress and human disease.
J Appl Toxicol. 2011 Mar; 31(2):95-107.JA

Abstract

Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid element that is present in air, water and soil. Inorganic arsenic tends to be more toxic than organic arsenic. Examples of methylated organic arsenicals include monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)]. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative damage is a common denominator in arsenic pathogenesis. In addition, arsenic induces morphological changes in the integrity of mitochondria. Cascade mechanisms of free radical formation derived from the superoxide radical, combined with glutathione-depleting agents, increase the sensitivity of cells to arsenic toxicity. When both humans and animals are exposed to arsenic, they experience an increased formation of ROS/RNS, including peroxyl radicals (ROO•), the superoxide radical, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical (OH•) via the Fenton reaction, hydrogen peroxide, the dimethylarsenic radical, the dimethylarsenic peroxyl radical and/or oxidant-induced DNA damage. Arsenic induces the formation of oxidized lipids which in turn generate several bioactive molecules (ROS, peroxides and isoprostanes), of which aldehydes [malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE)] are the major end products. This review discusses aspects of chronic and acute exposures of arsenic in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease (hypertension and atherosclerosis), neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disturbances, liver disease and renal disease, reproductive health effects, dermal changes and other health disorders. The role of antioxidant defence systems against arsenic toxicity is also discussed. Consideration is given to the role of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (α-tocopherol), curcumin, glutathione and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in their protective roles against arsenic-induced oxidative stress.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine The Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovakia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21321970

Citation

Jomova, K, et al. "Arsenic: Toxicity, Oxidative Stress and Human Disease." Journal of Applied Toxicology : JAT, vol. 31, no. 2, 2011, pp. 95-107.
Jomova K, Jenisova Z, Feszterova M, et al. Arsenic: toxicity, oxidative stress and human disease. J Appl Toxicol. 2011;31(2):95-107.
Jomova, K., Jenisova, Z., Feszterova, M., Baros, S., Liska, J., Hudecova, D., Rhodes, C. J., & Valko, M. (2011). Arsenic: toxicity, oxidative stress and human disease. Journal of Applied Toxicology : JAT, 31(2), 95-107. https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.1649
Jomova K, et al. Arsenic: Toxicity, Oxidative Stress and Human Disease. J Appl Toxicol. 2011;31(2):95-107. PubMed PMID: 21321970.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Arsenic: toxicity, oxidative stress and human disease. AU - Jomova,K, AU - Jenisova,Z, AU - Feszterova,M, AU - Baros,S, AU - Liska,J, AU - Hudecova,D, AU - Rhodes,C J, AU - Valko,M, Y1 - 2011/02/14/ PY - 2010/10/13/received PY - 2010/12/06/revised PY - 2010/12/07/accepted PY - 2011/2/16/entrez PY - 2011/2/16/pubmed PY - 2011/6/17/medline SP - 95 EP - 107 JF - Journal of applied toxicology : JAT JO - J Appl Toxicol VL - 31 IS - 2 N2 - Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid element that is present in air, water and soil. Inorganic arsenic tends to be more toxic than organic arsenic. Examples of methylated organic arsenicals include monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)]. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative damage is a common denominator in arsenic pathogenesis. In addition, arsenic induces morphological changes in the integrity of mitochondria. Cascade mechanisms of free radical formation derived from the superoxide radical, combined with glutathione-depleting agents, increase the sensitivity of cells to arsenic toxicity. When both humans and animals are exposed to arsenic, they experience an increased formation of ROS/RNS, including peroxyl radicals (ROO•), the superoxide radical, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical (OH•) via the Fenton reaction, hydrogen peroxide, the dimethylarsenic radical, the dimethylarsenic peroxyl radical and/or oxidant-induced DNA damage. Arsenic induces the formation of oxidized lipids which in turn generate several bioactive molecules (ROS, peroxides and isoprostanes), of which aldehydes [malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE)] are the major end products. This review discusses aspects of chronic and acute exposures of arsenic in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease (hypertension and atherosclerosis), neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disturbances, liver disease and renal disease, reproductive health effects, dermal changes and other health disorders. The role of antioxidant defence systems against arsenic toxicity is also discussed. Consideration is given to the role of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (α-tocopherol), curcumin, glutathione and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in their protective roles against arsenic-induced oxidative stress. SN - 1099-1263 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21321970/Arsenic:_toxicity_oxidative_stress_and_human_disease_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.1649 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -