Vitamin D deficiency is associated with depletion of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 May; 96(5):E830-5.JC
Vitamin D (Vit-D) deficiency is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and endothelial dysfunction. The relationship of Vit-D deficiency with circulating endothelial progenitor cells and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 DM patients nonetheless remains unclear.
We aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association of Vit-D status with brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and circulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) numbers in type 2 DM patients.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS
We conducted a cross-sectional study of 280 patients (59% male, aged 68 ± 10 yr) with type 2 DM recruited in outpatient clinics during the winter period.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE
We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] by an ELISA kit, circulating CD34+/kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR)+ and CD133+/KDR+ EPCs by flow cytometry and brachial artery FMD by vascular ultrasound, respectively.
The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 25.00 ± 9.17 ng/ml, and 34.3% of patients had Vit-D deficiency [25(OH)D < 20 ng/ml]. Serum 25(OH)D concentration had a significant correlation with hemoglobin A1c level [B = -0.018, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.035 to -0.002, P = 0.032]. Patients with Vit-D deficiency status had significantly lower brachial FMD (mean difference -1.43%, 95% CI -2.31 to -0.55, P = 0.001) and CD133+/KDR+EPC counts (mean difference -0.12%, 95% CI -0.21 to -0.019, P = 0.022) than those with sufficient Vit-D status after adjustment for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors, including hemoglobin A1c levels.
Our results demonstrate that serum 25(OH)D status was significantly associated with brachial artery FMD and circulating CD133+/KDR+EPCs. This suggests that Vit-D deficiency might contribute to depletion of EPCs and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 DM.