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Estimated fluid and sodium balance and drink preferences in elite male junior players during an ice hockey game.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2011; 36(1):145-52AP

Abstract

Research in many sports suggests that losing ~2% of body mass (BM) through sweating impairs athletic performance, although this has not been tested in ice hockey players. This study investigated pregame hydration, and on-ice sweat loss, fluid intake, and sodium (Na+) balance of elite male junior players during an ice hockey game. Twenty-four players (2 goalies, 7 defensemen, 15 forwards) volunteered to participate in the study (age, 18.3 ± 0.3 years; weight, 86.5 ±1.6 kg; height, 184.1 ± 1.3 cm). Players were weighed pre- and postgame, fluid and sodium intake were monitored throughout the game, and fluid and Na+ balance were determined within the time between BM measurements. Sweat Na+ loss was calculated based on sweat loss and sweat [Na+] determined from sweat-patch analysis on the same players during an intense practice. Players arrived at the rink in a euhydrated state and drank 0.6 ± 0.1 L of fluid before the game. Mean playing time for the forwards was 18:85 ± 1:15 min:s and playing time for the defense was 24:00 ± 2:46 min:s. Sweat loss was 3.2 ± 0.2 L and exceeded net fluid intake (2.1 ± 0.1 L). Mean BM loss was 1.3% ± 0.3%, with 8/24 players losing between 1.8% to 4.3% BM. Players preferred to drink water and a carbohydrate electrolyte solution before the game and during intermissions, while only water was consumed during each period. Practice mean forehead sweat [Na+] was 74 mmol·L-1. Estimated sweat Na+ losses of 3.1 ± 0.4 g (~8 g NaCl) coupled with low Na+ intake of 0.8 ± 0.2 g (~2 g NaCl) resulted in a significant Na+ deficit by the end of the game. This study demonstrated that despite abundant opportunities to hydrate during a hockey game, one-third of the players did not drink enough fluid to prevent sweat losses of 2% BM or higher. Losing 2% BM has been associated with decreases in athletic performance.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. hlogan@uoguelph.caNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21326389

Citation

Logan-Sprenger, Heather M., et al. "Estimated Fluid and Sodium Balance and Drink Preferences in Elite Male Junior Players During an Ice Hockey Game." Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition Et Metabolisme, vol. 36, no. 1, 2011, pp. 145-52.
Logan-Sprenger HM, Palmer MS, Spriet LL. Estimated fluid and sodium balance and drink preferences in elite male junior players during an ice hockey game. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011;36(1):145-52.
Logan-Sprenger, H. M., Palmer, M. S., & Spriet, L. L. (2011). Estimated fluid and sodium balance and drink preferences in elite male junior players during an ice hockey game. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition Et Metabolisme, 36(1), pp. 145-52. doi:10.1139/H10-098.
Logan-Sprenger HM, Palmer MS, Spriet LL. Estimated Fluid and Sodium Balance and Drink Preferences in Elite Male Junior Players During an Ice Hockey Game. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011;36(1):145-52. PubMed PMID: 21326389.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Estimated fluid and sodium balance and drink preferences in elite male junior players during an ice hockey game. AU - Logan-Sprenger,Heather M, AU - Palmer,Matthew S, AU - Spriet,Lawrence L, PY - 2011/2/18/entrez PY - 2011/2/18/pubmed PY - 2011/5/11/medline SP - 145 EP - 52 JF - Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme JO - Appl Physiol Nutr Metab VL - 36 IS - 1 N2 - Research in many sports suggests that losing ~2% of body mass (BM) through sweating impairs athletic performance, although this has not been tested in ice hockey players. This study investigated pregame hydration, and on-ice sweat loss, fluid intake, and sodium (Na+) balance of elite male junior players during an ice hockey game. Twenty-four players (2 goalies, 7 defensemen, 15 forwards) volunteered to participate in the study (age, 18.3 ± 0.3 years; weight, 86.5 ±1.6 kg; height, 184.1 ± 1.3 cm). Players were weighed pre- and postgame, fluid and sodium intake were monitored throughout the game, and fluid and Na+ balance were determined within the time between BM measurements. Sweat Na+ loss was calculated based on sweat loss and sweat [Na+] determined from sweat-patch analysis on the same players during an intense practice. Players arrived at the rink in a euhydrated state and drank 0.6 ± 0.1 L of fluid before the game. Mean playing time for the forwards was 18:85 ± 1:15 min:s and playing time for the defense was 24:00 ± 2:46 min:s. Sweat loss was 3.2 ± 0.2 L and exceeded net fluid intake (2.1 ± 0.1 L). Mean BM loss was 1.3% ± 0.3%, with 8/24 players losing between 1.8% to 4.3% BM. Players preferred to drink water and a carbohydrate electrolyte solution before the game and during intermissions, while only water was consumed during each period. Practice mean forehead sweat [Na+] was 74 mmol·L-1. Estimated sweat Na+ losses of 3.1 ± 0.4 g (~8 g NaCl) coupled with low Na+ intake of 0.8 ± 0.2 g (~2 g NaCl) resulted in a significant Na+ deficit by the end of the game. This study demonstrated that despite abundant opportunities to hydrate during a hockey game, one-third of the players did not drink enough fluid to prevent sweat losses of 2% BM or higher. Losing 2% BM has been associated with decreases in athletic performance. SN - 1715-5312 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21326389/Estimated_fluid_and_sodium_balance_and_drink_preferences_in_elite_male_junior_players_during_an_ice_hockey_game_ L2 - http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/H10-098?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -