Soluble TWEAK and PTX3 in nondialysis CKD patients: impact on endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes.Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Apr; 6(4):785-92.CJ
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) conveys high mortality rates. Soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) and long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) are predictors of mortality in dialysis patients and determinants of endothelial dysfunction. Now, we hypothesize that both sTWEAK and PTX3 act as biomarkers of cardiovascular outcomes in nondialysis CKD patients.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS
Cross-sectional analysis in which flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and intima-media thickness (IMT) were assessed in 257 nondialysis stage 1 to 5 CKD patients (mean age, 52 ± 12 years; 130 men), together with biochemical measurements and sTWEAK and PTX3 assessments. Patients were followed for cardiovascular outcomes.
PTX3 and IMT increased, whereas FMD and sTWEAK decreased across CKD stages (P<0.001 for all). Both PTX3 and sTWEAK appeared as strong determinants of FMD in multivariate analysis. The univariate associations of sTWEAK and PTX3 with IMT were dependent on estimated GFR. After a median of 39 months (range, 2 to 43 months), 22 fatal and 57 nonfatal cardiovascular events occurred. In a Cox model excluding PTX3, decreasing sTWEAK concentration was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events independently of basic confounders (age, gender, estimated GFR, C reactive protein, diabetes, and cardiovascular comorbidity) and FMD. In a model excluding sTWEAK, circulating levels of PTX3 were directly associated with cardiovascular outcomes independently of basic confounders, but this association was lost after adjustment for FMD.
Both PTX3 and sTWEAK levels associated with the endothelial dysfunction observed with progressive kidney failure. Additionally, both biomarkers impacted the predictability of cardiovascular outcomes.