Acute effects of a selective cannabinoid-2 receptor agonist on neuroinflammation in a model of traumatic brain injury.J Neurotrauma 2011; 28(6):973-81JN
Proposed therapeutic strategies for attenuating secondary traumatic brain injury (TBI) include modulation of acute neuroimmune responses. The goal of this study was to examine the acute effects of cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB(2)R) modulation on behavioral deficits, cerebral edema, perivascular substance P, and macrophage/microglial activation in a murine model of TBI. Thirty male C57BL/6 mice underwent sham surgery, or cortical contusion impact injury (CCI). CCI mice received vehicle or the CB(2)R agonist 0-1966 at 1 and 24 h after injury. Performance on the rotarod, forelimb cylinder, and open-field tests were evaluated before and at 48 h after sham or CCI surgery. Cerebral edema was evaluated using the wet-dry weight technique. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to examine changes in substance P and macrophage/microglia-specific Iba1 protein immunoreactivity. Locomotor performance and exploratory behavior were significantly improved in mice receiving 0-1966 (CB(2)R agonist) compared to vehicle-treated mice. Significant reductions were found for cerebral edema, number of perivascular areas of substance P immunoreactivity, and number of activated macrophages/microglial cells in the injured brains of 0-1966-treated mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. The findings show that the effects of the CB(2)R agonist 0-1966 on edema, substance P immunoreactivity, and macrophage/microglial activation, were associated with recovery of acute motor and exploratory deficits. This study provides evidence of acute neuroprotective effects derived from selective CB(2)R activation that may represent an avenue for further development of novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of TBI.