Multiresidue determination of ultratrace levels of fluoroquinolone antimicrobials in drinking and aquaculture water samples by automated online molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography.Anal Chem. 2011 Mar 15; 83(6):2046-55.AC
The present work describes the development of a sensitive and highly selective innovative method for the simultaneous detection of six fluoroquinolone (FQ) antimicrobials (enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin, danofloxacin, and sarafloxacin) in water samples. This detection is based on online solid phase extraction, coupled to liquid chromatography (LC), using for the first time tailor-made molecularly imprinted microspherical polymer particles prepared via precipitation polymerization. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the polymer have been optimized to reduce nonspecific interactions and to achieve selective uptake of the antibiotics from real samples. The method shows good recoveries ranging between 62% and 102% (V = 25 mL) for the different FQs tested and excellent interday and intraday precision with relative standard deviation (RSD) values between 2-5% and 2-6%, respectively. The detection limits were between 1-11 ng L(-1) (drinking water) and 1-12 ng L(-1) (fish farm water) when 25 mL samples were processed. The polymer showed selectivity for FQs containing a piperazine moiety whereas no retention was found for other antibiotics or nonrelated compounds. The method has been applied to the analysis of trace amounts of the FQs tested in drinking and fish farm water samples with excellent recoveries (>91%) and good precision (RSDs <5%).