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A biochemical study on the level of proteins and their percentage of nitration in the hair and nail of autistic children.
Clin Chim Acta 2011; 412(11-12):1036-42CC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Autism is a complex disorder which is heterogeneous in nature with varying degrees of severity for which no specific biological marker has been identified. Several studies are focused on the hair and nail protein pattern as a means to identify specific markers for the diagnosis of many childhood disorders like mental retardation, dyslexia, trichorrhexis nodosa, trichothiodystrophy, etc. The present study is one such approach in investigating the electrophoretic pattern of proteins in hard keratins and their percentage of nitration since nitric oxide production and nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins of autistic children are the emerging topic of research.

METHODS

We extracted and quantified the proteins from hair and nail samples of autistic children with different grades of severity, [low functioning autism (LFA), medium functioning autism (MFA), and high functioning autism (HFA)] and also from age- and sex-matched normal children. Protein pattern was evaluated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and the separated proteins were made to cross react with anti-nitro tyrosine antibody by Western blot analysis. Blood levels of TBARS, NO, GSH, vitamins A and C, SOD and GPx were also determined.

RESULTS

In the autistic groups, decreased concentration of protein in both hair and nail samples was observed. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that there was a significant decrease in both high and low sulfur proteins in the hair and nail extracts of autistic children and the Western blot analysis showed increased percentage of nitration of low sulfur proteins in autistic children when compared with normal children. Decreased levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and increased concentration of TBARS and NO were also observed in the blood of autistic children. The LFA group showed more significant alteration (p<0.001) in the concentration of proteins (in hair and nail) and percentage of nitration when compared with HFA and controls.

CONCLUSION

Lower protein content and higher percentage of nitration in hair and nail of autistic children correlated with their degrees of severity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biochemistry, Bharathi Women's College (Affiliated to University of Madras), North Chennai, 600 108, Tamil Nadu, India.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21338594

Citation

Lakshmi Priya, Malarveni Damodaran, and Arumugam Geetha. "A Biochemical Study On the Level of Proteins and Their Percentage of Nitration in the Hair and Nail of Autistic Children." Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry, vol. 412, no. 11-12, 2011, pp. 1036-42.
Lakshmi Priya MD, Geetha A. A biochemical study on the level of proteins and their percentage of nitration in the hair and nail of autistic children. Clin Chim Acta. 2011;412(11-12):1036-42.
Lakshmi Priya, M. D., & Geetha, A. (2011). A biochemical study on the level of proteins and their percentage of nitration in the hair and nail of autistic children. Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry, 412(11-12), pp. 1036-42. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2011.02.021.
Lakshmi Priya MD, Geetha A. A Biochemical Study On the Level of Proteins and Their Percentage of Nitration in the Hair and Nail of Autistic Children. Clin Chim Acta. 2011 May 12;412(11-12):1036-42. PubMed PMID: 21338594.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A biochemical study on the level of proteins and their percentage of nitration in the hair and nail of autistic children. AU - Lakshmi Priya,Malarveni Damodaran, AU - Geetha,Arumugam, Y1 - 2011/02/19/ PY - 2010/09/21/received PY - 2011/02/11/revised PY - 2011/02/11/accepted PY - 2011/2/23/entrez PY - 2011/2/23/pubmed PY - 2012/8/9/medline SP - 1036 EP - 42 JF - Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry JO - Clin. Chim. Acta VL - 412 IS - 11-12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Autism is a complex disorder which is heterogeneous in nature with varying degrees of severity for which no specific biological marker has been identified. Several studies are focused on the hair and nail protein pattern as a means to identify specific markers for the diagnosis of many childhood disorders like mental retardation, dyslexia, trichorrhexis nodosa, trichothiodystrophy, etc. The present study is one such approach in investigating the electrophoretic pattern of proteins in hard keratins and their percentage of nitration since nitric oxide production and nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins of autistic children are the emerging topic of research. METHODS: We extracted and quantified the proteins from hair and nail samples of autistic children with different grades of severity, [low functioning autism (LFA), medium functioning autism (MFA), and high functioning autism (HFA)] and also from age- and sex-matched normal children. Protein pattern was evaluated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and the separated proteins were made to cross react with anti-nitro tyrosine antibody by Western blot analysis. Blood levels of TBARS, NO, GSH, vitamins A and C, SOD and GPx were also determined. RESULTS: In the autistic groups, decreased concentration of protein in both hair and nail samples was observed. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that there was a significant decrease in both high and low sulfur proteins in the hair and nail extracts of autistic children and the Western blot analysis showed increased percentage of nitration of low sulfur proteins in autistic children when compared with normal children. Decreased levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and increased concentration of TBARS and NO were also observed in the blood of autistic children. The LFA group showed more significant alteration (p<0.001) in the concentration of proteins (in hair and nail) and percentage of nitration when compared with HFA and controls. CONCLUSION: Lower protein content and higher percentage of nitration in hair and nail of autistic children correlated with their degrees of severity. SN - 1873-3492 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21338594/A_biochemical_study_on_the_level_of_proteins_and_their_percentage_of_nitration_in_the_hair_and_nail_of_autistic_children_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0009-8981(11)00112-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -