Impact of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria on reproductive success of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) and predicted consequences at the population level.Ecotoxicology. 2011 Jun; 20(4):719-30.E
Our previous studies showed that microcystin (MC)-accumulation in the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis and effects on life-history traits (survival, growth, and fecundity) varied according to age, exposure pathway (MC-producing cyanobacteria or dissolved MC), and presence or not of additional non-toxic food. This study investigated effects of exposure to MC-producing cyanobacteria or to dissolved MC of parent and of parent and egg masses of L. stagnalis on hatching success, duration of embryonic development and neonate survival. Secondly, the potential impact of MC-producing cyanobacterial proliferations (blooms) on L. stagnalis population growth, depending on bloom frequencies and recovery duration of life traits after exposure, was evaluated using a modelling approach. Experimental results showed that embryonic development was shortened in case of parent exposure to toxic cyanobacteria. Parent and eggs exposure to dissolved MC extended embryonic development and reduced hatching percentage, suggesting a permeability of egg masses to MC. Whatever exposure, neonate survival was reduced. Neonates exposed to cyanobacteria accumulated MCs 24 h after hatching, suggesting very early cyanobacteria ingestion. Modelling results showed that L. stagnalis population growth was influenced by the recovery time of life-history traits after exposure. When setting the latest at 6 weeks according to previous experiments, a frequency of one to four blooms per year strongly affected population dynamics and induced up to a 80-weeks delay compared to control in time required for populations to grow from 1 to 1000 individuals. Results are discussed in terms of impact of intoxication pathways on parents, eggs and neonates, and on population dynamics of L. stagnalis.