Analytical and sensorial characterization of the aroma of wines produced with sour rotten grapes using GC-O and GC-MS: identification of key aroma compounds.J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Mar 23; 59(6):2543-53.JA
In the present work, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from sound and sour rot-infected grapes as raw material have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the odor volatiles most likely associated with this disease. The effect of sour rot was tested in monovarietal wines produced with the Portuguese red grape variety Trincadeira and in blends of Cabernet Sauvignon and sour rotten Trincadeira grapes. Wines produced from damaged berries exhibited clear honey-like notes not evoked by healthy samples. Ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA), both exhibiting sweet honey-like aromas, emerged as key aroma compounds of sour rotten wines. Their levels were 1 order of magnitude above those found in controls and reached 304 and 1668 μg L(-1) of EPhA and PAA, respectively, well above the corresponding odor thresholds. Levels of γ-nonalactone also increased by a factor 3 in sour rot samples. Results also suggest that sour rot exerts a great effect on the secondary metabolism of yeast, decreasing the levels of volatiles related to fatty acids and amino acid synthesis. The highest levels of γ-decalactone of up to 405 μg L(-1) were also found in all of the samples, suggesting that this could be a relevant aroma compound in Trincadeira wine aroma.