Activation of cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor due to the absence of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase.Biochemistry. 2011 Apr 12; 50(14):2850-9.B
We previously demonstrated that the absence of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) led to increased cell death following DNA-damaging treatments. Here, we investigated cell death pathways following UV treatment. Decreased amounts of PARG-null embryonic trophoblast stem (TS) cells were observed following doses of 10-100 J/m2 as compared to wild-type cells. In wild-type cells, caspase-cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and activated caspase-3 were detected 12-24 h after UV treatment. Surprisingly, both were detected at decreased levels only after 24 h in PARG-null TS cells, indicating a decreased level and delayed presence of caspase-mediated events. Further, a time- and dose-dependent accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) levels after UV was observed in PARG-null TS cells and not in wild-type cells. Determination of the levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), the substrate for PAR synthesis and a coenzyme in cellular redox reactions, demonstrated a UV dose-dependent decrease in the level of NAD+ in wild-type cells, while NAD+ levels in PARG-null TS cells remained at higher levels. This indicates no depletion of NAD+ in PARG-null TS cells following increased levels of PAR. Lastly, cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was analyzed because of its dependence on increased PAR levels. The results demonstrate nuclear AIF translocation only in PARG-null TS cells, which demonstrates the presence of AIF-mediated cell death. Herein, we provide compelling evidence that the absence of PARG leads to decreased caspase-3 activity and the specific activation of AIF-mediated cell death. Therefore, the absence of PARG may provide a strategy for specifically inducing an alternative apoptotic pathway.