S-allyl cysteine attenuates oxidative stress associated cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration in mouse model of streptozotocin-induced experimental dementia of Alzheimer's type.Brain Res. 2011 May 10; 1389:133-42.BR
S-allyl cysteine (SAC), a sulfur containing amino acid derived from garlic, has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-cancer, antihepatotoxic and neurotrophic activity. This study was designed to examine the pre-treatment effects of SAC on cognitive deficits and oxidative damage in the hippocampus of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-infused mice. Mice pre-treated with SAC (30mg/kg) and vehicle (intraperitoneal; once daily for 15days) were bilaterally injected with ICV-STZ (2.57mg/kg body weight), whereas sham rats received the same volume of vehicle. The pre-treatment of this drug to Swiss albino mice has prevented the cognitive and neurobehavioral impairments. An increased latency and path length were observed in lesion, i.e. streptozotocin (STZ) group as compared to sham group and these were protected significantly in STZ group pre-treated with SAC. Levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its dependent enzymes (Glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and glutathione reductase [GR]) were decreased in STZ group as compared to sham group and pre-treatment of STZ group with SAC has protected their activities significantly. Conversely, the elevated level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in STZ group was attenuated significantly in SAC pre-treated group when compared with STZ lesioned group. Apoptotic parameters like DNA fragmentation, expression of Bcl2 and p53 were protected by the pre-treatment of SAC against STZ induced cognitive impairment. This study concludes that intervention of SAC could prevent free radicals associated deterioration of cognitive functions and neurobehavioral activities.