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Alcohol, psychoactive drugs and fatal road traffic accidents in Norway: a case-control study.

Abstract

A case-control study was conducted on 204 drivers fatally injured in road traffic accidents in south-eastern Norway during the period 2003-2008. Cases from single vehicle accidents (N = 68) were assessed separately. As controls, 10540 drivers selected in a roadside survey in the same geographical area during 2005-2006 were used. Blood samples were collected from the cases and oral fluid (saliva) samples from the controls. Samples were analysed for alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opioid analgesics, hypnotics, sedatives and a muscle relaxant; altogether 22 psychoactive substances. Equivalent cutoff concentrations for blood and oral fluid were used. The risk for fatal injury in a road traffic accident was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age, season of the year, and time of the week. The odds for involvement in fatal road traffic accidents for different substances or combination of substances were in increasing order: single drug < multiple drugs < alcohol only < alcohol+drugs. For single substance use: medicinal drug or THC < amphetamine/methamphetamine < alcohol. For most substances, higher ORs were found when studying drivers involved in single vehicle accidents than for those involved in multiple vehicle accidents, but confidence intervals were wider.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse, Lovisenberggata 6, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway. Hallvard.Gjerde@fhi.no

    , , ,

    Source

    Accident; analysis and prevention 43:3 2011 May pg 1197-203

    MeSH

    Accidents, Traffic
    Adult
    Aged
    Alcoholic Intoxication
    Case-Control Studies
    Causality
    Ethanol
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Norway
    Psychotropic Drugs
    Substance Abuse Detection
    Substance-Related Disorders
    Wounds and Injuries
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21376919

    Citation

    Gjerde, Hallvard, et al. "Alcohol, Psychoactive Drugs and Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Norway: a Case-control Study." Accident; Analysis and Prevention, vol. 43, no. 3, 2011, pp. 1197-203.
    Gjerde H, Normann PT, Christophersen AS, et al. Alcohol, psychoactive drugs and fatal road traffic accidents in Norway: a case-control study. Accid Anal Prev. 2011;43(3):1197-203.
    Gjerde, H., Normann, P. T., Christophersen, A. S., Samuelsen, S. O., & Mørland, J. (2011). Alcohol, psychoactive drugs and fatal road traffic accidents in Norway: a case-control study. Accident; Analysis and Prevention, 43(3), pp. 1197-203. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2010.12.034.
    Gjerde H, et al. Alcohol, Psychoactive Drugs and Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Norway: a Case-control Study. Accid Anal Prev. 2011;43(3):1197-203. PubMed PMID: 21376919.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Alcohol, psychoactive drugs and fatal road traffic accidents in Norway: a case-control study. AU - Gjerde,Hallvard, AU - Normann,Per T, AU - Christophersen,Asbjørg S, AU - Samuelsen,Sven Ove, AU - Mørland,Jørg, Y1 - 2011/01/21/ PY - 2010/05/31/received PY - 2010/11/17/revised PY - 2010/12/08/accepted PY - 2011/3/8/entrez PY - 2011/3/8/pubmed PY - 2011/7/21/medline SP - 1197 EP - 203 JF - Accident; analysis and prevention JO - Accid Anal Prev VL - 43 IS - 3 N2 - A case-control study was conducted on 204 drivers fatally injured in road traffic accidents in south-eastern Norway during the period 2003-2008. Cases from single vehicle accidents (N = 68) were assessed separately. As controls, 10540 drivers selected in a roadside survey in the same geographical area during 2005-2006 were used. Blood samples were collected from the cases and oral fluid (saliva) samples from the controls. Samples were analysed for alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opioid analgesics, hypnotics, sedatives and a muscle relaxant; altogether 22 psychoactive substances. Equivalent cutoff concentrations for blood and oral fluid were used. The risk for fatal injury in a road traffic accident was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age, season of the year, and time of the week. The odds for involvement in fatal road traffic accidents for different substances or combination of substances were in increasing order: single drug < multiple drugs < alcohol only < alcohol+drugs. For single substance use: medicinal drug or THC < amphetamine/methamphetamine < alcohol. For most substances, higher ORs were found when studying drivers involved in single vehicle accidents than for those involved in multiple vehicle accidents, but confidence intervals were wider. SN - 1879-2057 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21376919/abstract/Alcohol_psychoactive_drugs_and_fatal_road_traffic_accidents_in_Norway:_a_case_control_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0001-4575(10)00411-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -