Alcohol, psychoactive drugs and fatal road traffic accidents in Norway: a case-control study.Accid Anal Prev 2011; 43(3):1197-203AA
A case-control study was conducted on 204 drivers fatally injured in road traffic accidents in south-eastern Norway during the period 2003-2008. Cases from single vehicle accidents (N = 68) were assessed separately. As controls, 10540 drivers selected in a roadside survey in the same geographical area during 2005-2006 were used. Blood samples were collected from the cases and oral fluid (saliva) samples from the controls. Samples were analysed for alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opioid analgesics, hypnotics, sedatives and a muscle relaxant; altogether 22 psychoactive substances. Equivalent cutoff concentrations for blood and oral fluid were used. The risk for fatal injury in a road traffic accident was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age, season of the year, and time of the week. The odds for involvement in fatal road traffic accidents for different substances or combination of substances were in increasing order: single drug < multiple drugs < alcohol only < alcohol+drugs. For single substance use: medicinal drug or THC < amphetamine/methamphetamine < alcohol. For most substances, higher ORs were found when studying drivers involved in single vehicle accidents than for those involved in multiple vehicle accidents, but confidence intervals were wider.