Valvular incompetence in superficial, deep and perforator veins of limbs with varicose veins.Acta Chir Scand. 1990 Jan; 156(1):69-74.AC
Venous valvular incompetence was investigated with Doppler technique in 296 limbs with untreated primary varicose veins. Partial or complete insufficiency of the long saphenous vein was found in 95%. Six patterns of incompetence of this vein could be distinguished. Insufficiency of the short saphenous vein was present in 15% of the limbs and perforator incompetence in 45%. Femoral and/or popliteal vein reflux was found in 20% of the limbs. In eight limbs (2.7%) with verified primary deep venous insufficiency there was a moderate or severe degree of femoral and popliteal venous reflux. Skin changes secondary to the venous disease were present in 18% of the limbs, mainly those with incompetence of perforator and long saphenous veins. Doppler investigation of varicose limbs give valuable information and can be recommended as a standard pre-treatment test.