Fluid balance of elite Brazilian youth soccer players during consecutive days of training.J Sports Sci 2011; 29(7):725-32JS
In this study we investigated pre-training hydration status, fluid intake, and sweat loss in 20 elite male Brazilian adolescent soccer players (mean ± s: age 17.2 ± 0.5 years; height 1.76 ± 0.05 m; body mass 69.9 ± 6.0 kg) on three consecutive days of typical training during the qualifying phase of the national soccer league. Urine specific gravity (USG) and body mass changes were evaluated before and after training sessions to estimate hydration status. Players began the days of training mildly hypohydrated (USG > 1.020) and fluid intake did not match fluid losses. It was warmer on Day 1 (33.1 ± 2.4°C and43.4 ± 3.2% relative humidity; P < 0.05) and total estimated sweat losses (2822 ± 530 mL) and fluid intake (1607 ± 460 mL) were significantly higher (P < 0.001) compared with Days 2 and 3. Data also indicate a significant correlation between the extent of sweat loss and the volume of fluid consumed (Day 1: r = 0.560, P = 0.010; Day 2: r = 0.445, P = 0.049; Day 3: r = 0.743, P = 0.0001). We conclude that young, native tropical soccer players arrive hypohydrated to training and that they exhibit voluntary dehydration; therefore, enhancing athletes' self-knowledge of sweat loss during training might help them to consume sufficient fluid to match the sweat losses.