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Neuropathology and neurochemistry of nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.
Parkinsons Dis. 2011 Feb 17; 2011:708404.PD

Abstract

Parkinson disease (PD) is no longer considered a complex motor disorder characterized by Parkinsonism but rather a systemic disease with variegated non-motor deficits and neurological symptoms, including impaired olfaction, autonomic failure, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric symptoms. Many of these alterations appear before or in parallel with motor deficits and then worsen with disease progression. Although there is a close relation between motor symptoms and the presence of Lewy bodies (LBs) and neurites filled with abnormal α-synuclein, other neurological alterations are independent of the amount of α-synuclein inclusions in neurons and neurites, thereby indicating that different mechanisms probably converge in the degenerative process. Involvement of the cerebral cortex that may lead to altered behaviour and cognition are related to several convergent factors such as (a) abnormal α-synuclein and other proteins at the synapses, rather than LBs and neurites, (b) impaired dopaminergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic and serotoninergic cortical innervation, and (c) altered neuronal function resulting from reduced energy production and increased energy demands. These alterations appear at early stages of the disease and may precede by years the appearance of cell loss and cortical atrophy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institut de Neuropatologia, Servei Anatomia Patològica, IDIBELL-Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Universitat de Barcelona, carrer Feixa LLarga sn, CIBERNED, 08907 Hospitalet de LLobregat, Spain.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21403906

Citation

Ferrer, Isidro. "Neuropathology and Neurochemistry of Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease." Parkinson's Disease, vol. 2011, 2011, p. 708404.
Ferrer I. Neuropathology and neurochemistry of nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsons Dis. 2011;2011:708404.
Ferrer, I. (2011). Neuropathology and neurochemistry of nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's Disease, 2011, 708404. https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/708404
Ferrer I. Neuropathology and Neurochemistry of Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease. Parkinsons Dis. 2011 Feb 17;2011:708404. PubMed PMID: 21403906.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Neuropathology and neurochemistry of nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. A1 - Ferrer,Isidro, Y1 - 2011/02/17/ PY - 2010/10/11/received PY - 2010/12/16/accepted PY - 2011/3/16/entrez PY - 2011/3/16/pubmed PY - 2011/3/16/medline SP - 708404 EP - 708404 JF - Parkinson's disease JO - Parkinsons Dis VL - 2011 N2 - Parkinson disease (PD) is no longer considered a complex motor disorder characterized by Parkinsonism but rather a systemic disease with variegated non-motor deficits and neurological symptoms, including impaired olfaction, autonomic failure, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric symptoms. Many of these alterations appear before or in parallel with motor deficits and then worsen with disease progression. Although there is a close relation between motor symptoms and the presence of Lewy bodies (LBs) and neurites filled with abnormal α-synuclein, other neurological alterations are independent of the amount of α-synuclein inclusions in neurons and neurites, thereby indicating that different mechanisms probably converge in the degenerative process. Involvement of the cerebral cortex that may lead to altered behaviour and cognition are related to several convergent factors such as (a) abnormal α-synuclein and other proteins at the synapses, rather than LBs and neurites, (b) impaired dopaminergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic and serotoninergic cortical innervation, and (c) altered neuronal function resulting from reduced energy production and increased energy demands. These alterations appear at early stages of the disease and may precede by years the appearance of cell loss and cortical atrophy. SN - 2042-0080 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21403906/Neuropathology_and_neurochemistry_of_nonmotor_symptoms_in_Parkinson's_disease_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/708404 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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