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Catalytic C-H bond amination from high-spin iron imido complexes.
J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Apr 06; 133(13):4917-23.JA

Abstract

Dipyrromethene ligand scaffolds were synthesized bearing large aryl (2,4,6-Ph(3)C(6)H(2), abbreviated Ar) or alkyl ((t)Bu, adamantyl) flanking groups to afford three new disubstituted ligands ((R)L, 1,9-R(2)-5-mesityldipyrromethene, R=aryl, alkyl). While high-spin (S=2), four-coordinate iron complexes of the type ((R)L)FeCl(solv) were obtained with the alkyl-substituted ligand varieties (for R=(t)Bu, Ad and solv=THF, OEt(2)), use of the sterically encumbered aryl-substituted ligand precluded binding of solvent and cleanly afforded a high-spin (S=2), three-coordinate complex of the type ((Ar)L)FeCl. Reaction of ((Ad)L)FeCl(OEt(2)) with alkyl azides resulted in the catalytic amination of C-H bonds or olefin aziridination at room temperature. Using a 5% catalyst loading, 12 turnovers were obtained for the amination of toluene as a substrate, while greater than 85% of alkyl azide was converted to the corresponding aziridine employing styrene as a substrate. A primary kinetic isotope effect of 12.8(5) was obtained for the reaction of ((Ad)L)FeCl(OEt(2)) with adamantyl azide in an equimolar toluene/toluene-d(8) mixture, consistent with the amination proceeding through a hydrogen atom abstraction, radical rebound type mechanism. Reaction of p-(t)BuC(6)H(4)N(3) with ((Ar)L)FeCl permitted isolation of a high-spin (S=2) iron complex featuring a terminal imido ligand, ((Ar)L)FeCl(N(p-(t)BuC(6)H(4))), as determined by (1)H NMR, X-ray crystallography, and (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The measured Fe-N(imide) bond distance (1.768(2) Å) is the longest reported for Fe(imido) complexes in any geometry or spin state, and the disruption of the bond metrics within the imido aryl substituent suggests delocalization of a radical throughout the aryl ring. Zero-field (57)Fe Mössbauer parameters obtained for ((Ar)L)FeCl(N(p-(t)BuC(6)H(4))) suggest a Fe(III) formulation and are nearly identical with those observed for a structurally similar, high-spin Fe(III) complex bearing the same dipyrromethene framework. Theoretical analyses of ((Ar)L)FeCl(N(p-(t)BuC(6)H(4))) suggest a formulation for this reactive species to be a high-spin Fe(III) center antiferromagnetically coupled to an imido-based radical (J = -673 cm(-1)). The terminal imido complex was effective for delivering the nitrene moiety to both C-H bond substrates (42% yield) as well as styrene (76% yield). Furthermore, a primary kinetic isotope effect of 24(3) was obtained for the reaction of ((Ar)L)FeCl(N(p-(t)BuC(6)H(4))) with an equimolar toluene/toluene-d(8) mixture, consistent with the values obtained in the catalytic reaction. This commonality suggests the isolated high-spin Fe(III) imido radical is a viable intermediate in the catalytic reaction pathway. Given the breadth of iron imido complexes spanning several oxidation states (Fe(II)-Fe(V)) and several spin states (S=0→(3)/(2)), we propose the unusual electronic structure of the described high-spin iron imido complexes contributes to the observed catalytic reactivity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21405138

Citation

King, Evan R., et al. "Catalytic C-H Bond Amination From High-spin Iron Imido Complexes." Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 133, no. 13, 2011, pp. 4917-23.
King ER, Hennessy ET, Betley TA. Catalytic C-H bond amination from high-spin iron imido complexes. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133(13):4917-23.
King, E. R., Hennessy, E. T., & Betley, T. A. (2011). Catalytic C-H bond amination from high-spin iron imido complexes. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 133(13), 4917-23. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja110066j
King ER, Hennessy ET, Betley TA. Catalytic C-H Bond Amination From High-spin Iron Imido Complexes. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Apr 6;133(13):4917-23. PubMed PMID: 21405138.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Catalytic C-H bond amination from high-spin iron imido complexes. AU - King,Evan R, AU - Hennessy,Elisabeth T, AU - Betley,Theodore A, Y1 - 2011/03/15/ PY - 2011/3/17/entrez PY - 2011/3/17/pubmed PY - 2011/7/16/medline SP - 4917 EP - 23 JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society JO - J Am Chem Soc VL - 133 IS - 13 N2 - Dipyrromethene ligand scaffolds were synthesized bearing large aryl (2,4,6-Ph(3)C(6)H(2), abbreviated Ar) or alkyl ((t)Bu, adamantyl) flanking groups to afford three new disubstituted ligands ((R)L, 1,9-R(2)-5-mesityldipyrromethene, R=aryl, alkyl). While high-spin (S=2), four-coordinate iron complexes of the type ((R)L)FeCl(solv) were obtained with the alkyl-substituted ligand varieties (for R=(t)Bu, Ad and solv=THF, OEt(2)), use of the sterically encumbered aryl-substituted ligand precluded binding of solvent and cleanly afforded a high-spin (S=2), three-coordinate complex of the type ((Ar)L)FeCl. Reaction of ((Ad)L)FeCl(OEt(2)) with alkyl azides resulted in the catalytic amination of C-H bonds or olefin aziridination at room temperature. Using a 5% catalyst loading, 12 turnovers were obtained for the amination of toluene as a substrate, while greater than 85% of alkyl azide was converted to the corresponding aziridine employing styrene as a substrate. A primary kinetic isotope effect of 12.8(5) was obtained for the reaction of ((Ad)L)FeCl(OEt(2)) with adamantyl azide in an equimolar toluene/toluene-d(8) mixture, consistent with the amination proceeding through a hydrogen atom abstraction, radical rebound type mechanism. Reaction of p-(t)BuC(6)H(4)N(3) with ((Ar)L)FeCl permitted isolation of a high-spin (S=2) iron complex featuring a terminal imido ligand, ((Ar)L)FeCl(N(p-(t)BuC(6)H(4))), as determined by (1)H NMR, X-ray crystallography, and (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The measured Fe-N(imide) bond distance (1.768(2) Å) is the longest reported for Fe(imido) complexes in any geometry or spin state, and the disruption of the bond metrics within the imido aryl substituent suggests delocalization of a radical throughout the aryl ring. Zero-field (57)Fe Mössbauer parameters obtained for ((Ar)L)FeCl(N(p-(t)BuC(6)H(4))) suggest a Fe(III) formulation and are nearly identical with those observed for a structurally similar, high-spin Fe(III) complex bearing the same dipyrromethene framework. Theoretical analyses of ((Ar)L)FeCl(N(p-(t)BuC(6)H(4))) suggest a formulation for this reactive species to be a high-spin Fe(III) center antiferromagnetically coupled to an imido-based radical (J = -673 cm(-1)). The terminal imido complex was effective for delivering the nitrene moiety to both C-H bond substrates (42% yield) as well as styrene (76% yield). Furthermore, a primary kinetic isotope effect of 24(3) was obtained for the reaction of ((Ar)L)FeCl(N(p-(t)BuC(6)H(4))) with an equimolar toluene/toluene-d(8) mixture, consistent with the values obtained in the catalytic reaction. This commonality suggests the isolated high-spin Fe(III) imido radical is a viable intermediate in the catalytic reaction pathway. Given the breadth of iron imido complexes spanning several oxidation states (Fe(II)-Fe(V)) and several spin states (S=0→(3)/(2)), we propose the unusual electronic structure of the described high-spin iron imido complexes contributes to the observed catalytic reactivity. SN - 1520-5126 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21405138/Catalytic_C_H_bond_amination_from_high_spin_iron_imido_complexes_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1021/ja110066j DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -