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Are the glycemic and insulinemic index values of carbohydrate foods similar in healthy control, hyperinsulinemic and type 2 diabetic patients?
Eur J Clin Nutr 2011; 65(6):727-34EJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES

a criticism of glycemic index (GI) is that it does not indicate the insulin response of foods (insulinemic index, II). However, it is unknown if the GI and II values of foods are equivalent in all subjects, a necessary criterion for clinical utility. We compared GI and II values in non-diabetic subjects with fasting-serum-insulin (FSI) <40 pmol/l (healthy control) or with FSI ≥ 40 pmol/l (hyper[I]) and subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and to see whether GI and II were related to the serum-glucose concentrations, insulin sensitivity, β-cell function and hepatic insulin extraction (HIE) of the subjects.

SUBJECTS/METHODS

Serum-glucose, -insulin and -C-peptide responses after 50 g available-carbohydrate portions of glucose (tested three times by each subject), sucrose, instant mashed-potato, white-bread, polished-rice and pearled-barley were measured in healthy control (n=9), hyper[I] (n=12) and T2DM (n=10) subjects.

RESULTS

Food GI values did not differ significantly among the three subject groups, whereas II values were higher in T2DM (100±7) than healthy controls (78±5) and hyper[I] subjects (70±5) (mean±s.e.m., P=0.05). II was inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (r=-0.66, P<0.0001) and positively related to fasting- and postprandial-glucose (both r=0.68, P<0.0001) and HIE (r=0.62, P=0.0002). In contrast, GI was not related to any of the biomarkers (P>0.05).

CONCLUSION

The GI is a valid property of foods because its value is similar in healthy control, hyper [I] and T2DM subjects, and is independent of subjects' metabolic status. However, II may depend upon the glycaemic control, insulin sensitivity and HIE of the subjects.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21427735

Citation

Lan-Pidhainy, X, and T M S. Wolever. "Are the Glycemic and Insulinemic Index Values of Carbohydrate Foods Similar in Healthy Control, Hyperinsulinemic and Type 2 Diabetic Patients?" European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 65, no. 6, 2011, pp. 727-34.
Lan-Pidhainy X, Wolever TM. Are the glycemic and insulinemic index values of carbohydrate foods similar in healthy control, hyperinsulinemic and type 2 diabetic patients? Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(6):727-34.
Lan-Pidhainy, X., & Wolever, T. M. (2011). Are the glycemic and insulinemic index values of carbohydrate foods similar in healthy control, hyperinsulinemic and type 2 diabetic patients? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(6), pp. 727-34. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.28.
Lan-Pidhainy X, Wolever TM. Are the Glycemic and Insulinemic Index Values of Carbohydrate Foods Similar in Healthy Control, Hyperinsulinemic and Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(6):727-34. PubMed PMID: 21427735.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Are the glycemic and insulinemic index values of carbohydrate foods similar in healthy control, hyperinsulinemic and type 2 diabetic patients? AU - Lan-Pidhainy,X, AU - Wolever,T M S, Y1 - 2011/03/23/ PY - 2011/3/24/entrez PY - 2011/3/24/pubmed PY - 2011/12/14/medline SP - 727 EP - 34 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 65 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: a criticism of glycemic index (GI) is that it does not indicate the insulin response of foods (insulinemic index, II). However, it is unknown if the GI and II values of foods are equivalent in all subjects, a necessary criterion for clinical utility. We compared GI and II values in non-diabetic subjects with fasting-serum-insulin (FSI) <40 pmol/l (healthy control) or with FSI ≥ 40 pmol/l (hyper[I]) and subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and to see whether GI and II were related to the serum-glucose concentrations, insulin sensitivity, β-cell function and hepatic insulin extraction (HIE) of the subjects. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Serum-glucose, -insulin and -C-peptide responses after 50 g available-carbohydrate portions of glucose (tested three times by each subject), sucrose, instant mashed-potato, white-bread, polished-rice and pearled-barley were measured in healthy control (n=9), hyper[I] (n=12) and T2DM (n=10) subjects. RESULTS: Food GI values did not differ significantly among the three subject groups, whereas II values were higher in T2DM (100±7) than healthy controls (78±5) and hyper[I] subjects (70±5) (mean±s.e.m., P=0.05). II was inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (r=-0.66, P<0.0001) and positively related to fasting- and postprandial-glucose (both r=0.68, P<0.0001) and HIE (r=0.62, P=0.0002). In contrast, GI was not related to any of the biomarkers (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The GI is a valid property of foods because its value is similar in healthy control, hyper [I] and T2DM subjects, and is independent of subjects' metabolic status. However, II may depend upon the glycaemic control, insulin sensitivity and HIE of the subjects. SN - 1476-5640 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21427735/Are_the_glycemic_and_insulinemic_index_values_of_carbohydrate_foods_similar_in_healthy_control_hyperinsulinemic_and_type_2_diabetic_patients L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2011.28 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -