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Raw and processed fruit and vegetable consumption and 10-year stroke incidence in a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul; 65(7):791-9.EJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES

Prospective cohort studies have shown that high fruit and vegetable consumption is related to a lower risk of stroke. Whether food processing affects this association is unknown. We evaluated the associations of raw and processed fruit and vegetable consumption independently from each other with 10-year stroke incidence and stroke subtypes in a prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands.

SUBJECTS/METHODS

We used data of 20 069 men and women aged 20-65 years and free of cardiovascular diseases at baseline who were enrolled from 1993 to 1997. Diet was assessed using a validated 178-item food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for total, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS

During a mean follow-up time of 10.3 years, 233 incident stroke cases were documented. Total and processed fruit and vegetable intake were not related to incident stroke. Total stroke incidence was 30% lower for participants with a high intake of raw fruit and vegetables (Q4: >262 g/day; HR: 0.70; 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs): 0.47-1.03) compared with those with a low intake (Q1: ≤92 g/day) and the trend was borderline significant (P for trend=0.07). Raw vegetable intake was significantly inversely associated with ischemic stroke (>27 vs ≤27 g/day; HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.34-0.73), and raw fruit borderline significantly with hemorrhagic stroke (>120 vs ≤120 g/day; HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.28-1.01).

CONCLUSIONS

High intake of raw fruit and vegetables may protect against stroke. No association was found between processed fruit and vegetable consumption and incident stroke.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Linda.oudegriep@wur.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21427746

Citation

Oude Griep, L M., et al. "Raw and Processed Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and 10-year Stroke Incidence in a Population-based Cohort Study in the Netherlands." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 65, no. 7, 2011, pp. 791-9.
Oude Griep LM, Verschuren WM, Kromhout D, et al. Raw and processed fruit and vegetable consumption and 10-year stroke incidence in a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(7):791-9.
Oude Griep, L. M., Verschuren, W. M., Kromhout, D., Ocké, M. C., & Geleijnse, J. M. (2011). Raw and processed fruit and vegetable consumption and 10-year stroke incidence in a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(7), 791-9. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2011.36
Oude Griep LM, et al. Raw and Processed Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and 10-year Stroke Incidence in a Population-based Cohort Study in the Netherlands. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(7):791-9. PubMed PMID: 21427746.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Raw and processed fruit and vegetable consumption and 10-year stroke incidence in a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. AU - Oude Griep,L M, AU - Verschuren,W M M, AU - Kromhout,D, AU - Ocké,M C, AU - Geleijnse,J M, Y1 - 2011/03/23/ PY - 2011/3/24/entrez PY - 2011/3/24/pubmed PY - 2011/11/10/medline SP - 791 EP - 9 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 65 IS - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prospective cohort studies have shown that high fruit and vegetable consumption is related to a lower risk of stroke. Whether food processing affects this association is unknown. We evaluated the associations of raw and processed fruit and vegetable consumption independently from each other with 10-year stroke incidence and stroke subtypes in a prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used data of 20 069 men and women aged 20-65 years and free of cardiovascular diseases at baseline who were enrolled from 1993 to 1997. Diet was assessed using a validated 178-item food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for total, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up time of 10.3 years, 233 incident stroke cases were documented. Total and processed fruit and vegetable intake were not related to incident stroke. Total stroke incidence was 30% lower for participants with a high intake of raw fruit and vegetables (Q4: >262 g/day; HR: 0.70; 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs): 0.47-1.03) compared with those with a low intake (Q1: ≤92 g/day) and the trend was borderline significant (P for trend=0.07). Raw vegetable intake was significantly inversely associated with ischemic stroke (>27 vs ≤27 g/day; HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.34-0.73), and raw fruit borderline significantly with hemorrhagic stroke (>120 vs ≤120 g/day; HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.28-1.01). CONCLUSIONS: High intake of raw fruit and vegetables may protect against stroke. No association was found between processed fruit and vegetable consumption and incident stroke. SN - 1476-5640 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21427746/Raw_and_processed_fruit_and_vegetable_consumption_and_10_year_stroke_incidence_in_a_population_based_cohort_study_in_the_Netherlands_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2011.36 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -