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Changes in the prevalence of the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the United States from 1988 to 2008.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 9(6):524-530.e1; quiz e60CG

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS

Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We assessed changes in the prevalence of different types of CLD in the United States.

METHODS

National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 1988 and 2008 were used to estimate changes in the prevalence and predictors of CLDs. Serologic and clinical data were used to establish the diagnoses of CLDs in 39,500 adults. Statistical analyses were conducted with SUDAAN 10.0 (SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, NC).

RESULTS

The prevalence rates for CLD were 11.78% (1988-1994), 15.66% (1999-2004), and 14.78% (2005-2008). During the same period, the prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection (0.36%, 0.33%, and 0.34%), hepatitis C virus (1.95%, 1.97%, and 1.68%), and alcoholic liver disease (1.38%, 2.21%, and 2.05%) remained generally stable. In contrast, the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increased from 5.51% to 9.84% to 11.01%. From 1988 to 1994, NAFLD accounted for 46.8% of CLD cases; from 1994 to 2004 its prevalence increased to 62.84%, and then to 75.1% from 2005 to 2008. During these time periods, steady increases were observed in obesity (21.74%, 30.02%, and 33.22%), visceral obesity (35.18%, 48.16%, and 51.43%), type II diabetes (5.55%, 7.88%, and 9.11%), insulin resistance (23.29%, 32.50%, and 35.00%), and hypertension (22.68%, 33.11%, and 34.08%). A multivariate analysis showed that during all time periods, obesity was an independent predictor of NAFLD.

CONCLUSIONS

National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data collected from 1988 to 2008 show that the prevalence of major causes of CLD remained stable, except for NAFLD, which increased steadily, along with the prevalence of metabolic conditions. Given the increasing rates of obesity, NAFLD prevalence is expected to contribute substantially to the burden of CLD in the United States.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Liver Diseases, Inova Fairfax Hospital, Falls Church, Virginia, USA. zobair.younossi@inova.orgNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21440669

Citation

Younossi, Zobair M., et al. "Changes in the Prevalence of the Most Common Causes of Chronic Liver Diseases in the United States From 1988 to 2008." Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : the Official Clinical Practice Journal of the American Gastroenterological Association, vol. 9, no. 6, 2011, pp. 524-530.e1; quiz e60.
Younossi ZM, Stepanova M, Afendy M, et al. Changes in the prevalence of the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the United States from 1988 to 2008. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9(6):524-530.e1; quiz e60.
Younossi, Z. M., Stepanova, M., Afendy, M., Fang, Y., Younossi, Y., Mir, H., & Srishord, M. (2011). Changes in the prevalence of the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the United States from 1988 to 2008. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : the Official Clinical Practice Journal of the American Gastroenterological Association, 9(6), pp. 524-530.e1; quiz e60. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2011.03.020.
Younossi ZM, et al. Changes in the Prevalence of the Most Common Causes of Chronic Liver Diseases in the United States From 1988 to 2008. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9(6):524-530.e1; quiz e60. PubMed PMID: 21440669.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Changes in the prevalence of the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the United States from 1988 to 2008. AU - Younossi,Zobair M, AU - Stepanova,Maria, AU - Afendy,Mariam, AU - Fang,Yun, AU - Younossi,Youssef, AU - Mir,Hesham, AU - Srishord,Manirath, Y1 - 2011/03/25/ PY - 2011/02/11/received PY - 2011/03/11/revised PY - 2011/03/15/accepted PY - 2011/3/29/entrez PY - 2011/3/29/pubmed PY - 2011/9/8/medline SP - 524-530.e1; quiz e60 JF - Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association JO - Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. VL - 9 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We assessed changes in the prevalence of different types of CLD in the United States. METHODS: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 1988 and 2008 were used to estimate changes in the prevalence and predictors of CLDs. Serologic and clinical data were used to establish the diagnoses of CLDs in 39,500 adults. Statistical analyses were conducted with SUDAAN 10.0 (SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, NC). RESULTS: The prevalence rates for CLD were 11.78% (1988-1994), 15.66% (1999-2004), and 14.78% (2005-2008). During the same period, the prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection (0.36%, 0.33%, and 0.34%), hepatitis C virus (1.95%, 1.97%, and 1.68%), and alcoholic liver disease (1.38%, 2.21%, and 2.05%) remained generally stable. In contrast, the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increased from 5.51% to 9.84% to 11.01%. From 1988 to 1994, NAFLD accounted for 46.8% of CLD cases; from 1994 to 2004 its prevalence increased to 62.84%, and then to 75.1% from 2005 to 2008. During these time periods, steady increases were observed in obesity (21.74%, 30.02%, and 33.22%), visceral obesity (35.18%, 48.16%, and 51.43%), type II diabetes (5.55%, 7.88%, and 9.11%), insulin resistance (23.29%, 32.50%, and 35.00%), and hypertension (22.68%, 33.11%, and 34.08%). A multivariate analysis showed that during all time periods, obesity was an independent predictor of NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data collected from 1988 to 2008 show that the prevalence of major causes of CLD remained stable, except for NAFLD, which increased steadily, along with the prevalence of metabolic conditions. Given the increasing rates of obesity, NAFLD prevalence is expected to contribute substantially to the burden of CLD in the United States. SN - 1542-7714 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21440669/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1542-3565(11)00317-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -