Differential effects of a visual illusion on online visual guidance in a stable environment and online adjustments to perturbations.Conscious Cogn. 2011 Dec; 20(4):1135-43.CC
In the reported, experiment participants hit a ball to aim at the vertex of a Müller-Lyer configuration. This configuration either remained stable, changed its shaft length or the orientation of the tails during movement execution. A significant illusion bias was observed in all perturbation conditions, but not in the stationary condition. The illusion bias emerged for perturbations shortly after movement onset and for perturbations during execution, the latter of which allowed only a minimum of time for making adjustments (i.e., approx.170 ms). These findings indicate that allocentric information is exploited for online control when people make rapid adjustments in response to a sudden change in the environment and not when people guide their limb movements to interact with a stable environment.