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Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies.
Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 93(6):1212-9AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In 2 meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials, increased coffee intake was associated with slightly higher blood pressure. However, these trials were short in duration (<85 d).

OBJECTIVE

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of long-term prospective studies that examined the association of habitual coffee consumption with risk of hypertension.

DESIGN

We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Agricola, and Cochrane Library) through August 2009 with the use of a standardized protocol. Eligible studies were prospective cohort trials that examined the association of coffee consumption with incident hypertension or blood pressure.

RESULTS

From 6 prospective cohort studies, a total of 172,567 participants and 37,135 incident hypertension cases were included. Mean follow-up ranged from 6.4 to 33.0 y. Compared with the lowest consumption [<1 cup (≈237 mL)/d], the pooled relative risks (RRs) for hypertension were 1.09 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.18) for the next higher category (1-3 cups/d), 1.07 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.20) for the second highest category (3-5 cups/d), and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.21) for the highest category (>5 cups/d). A dose-response meta-analysis showed an inverse "J-shaped" curve (P for quadratic term < 0.001) with hypertension risk increasing up to 3 cups/d (RR for comparison of 3 with 0 cups/d: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.20) and decreasing with higher intakes (RR for comparison of 6 with 0 cups/d: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.10).

CONCLUSION

The results suggest that habitual coffee consumption of >3 cups/d was not associated with an increased risk of hypertension compared with <1 cup/d; however, a slightly elevated risk appeared to be associated with light-to-moderate consumption of 1 to 3 cups/d.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21450934

Citation

Zhang, Zhenzhen, et al. "Habitual Coffee Consumption and Risk of Hypertension: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prospective Observational Studies." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 93, no. 6, 2011, pp. 1212-9.
Zhang Z, Hu G, Caballero B, et al. Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(6):1212-9.
Zhang, Z., Hu, G., Caballero, B., Appel, L., & Chen, L. (2011). Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 93(6), pp. 1212-9. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.004044.
Zhang Z, et al. Habitual Coffee Consumption and Risk of Hypertension: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prospective Observational Studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(6):1212-9. PubMed PMID: 21450934.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. AU - Zhang,Zhenzhen, AU - Hu,Gang, AU - Caballero,Benjamin, AU - Appel,Lawrence, AU - Chen,Liwei, Y1 - 2011/03/30/ PY - 2011/4/1/entrez PY - 2011/4/1/pubmed PY - 2011/7/29/medline SP - 1212 EP - 9 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 93 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: In 2 meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials, increased coffee intake was associated with slightly higher blood pressure. However, these trials were short in duration (<85 d). OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of long-term prospective studies that examined the association of habitual coffee consumption with risk of hypertension. DESIGN: We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Agricola, and Cochrane Library) through August 2009 with the use of a standardized protocol. Eligible studies were prospective cohort trials that examined the association of coffee consumption with incident hypertension or blood pressure. RESULTS: From 6 prospective cohort studies, a total of 172,567 participants and 37,135 incident hypertension cases were included. Mean follow-up ranged from 6.4 to 33.0 y. Compared with the lowest consumption [<1 cup (≈237 mL)/d], the pooled relative risks (RRs) for hypertension were 1.09 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.18) for the next higher category (1-3 cups/d), 1.07 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.20) for the second highest category (3-5 cups/d), and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.21) for the highest category (>5 cups/d). A dose-response meta-analysis showed an inverse "J-shaped" curve (P for quadratic term < 0.001) with hypertension risk increasing up to 3 cups/d (RR for comparison of 3 with 0 cups/d: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.20) and decreasing with higher intakes (RR for comparison of 6 with 0 cups/d: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.10). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that habitual coffee consumption of >3 cups/d was not associated with an increased risk of hypertension compared with <1 cup/d; however, a slightly elevated risk appeared to be associated with light-to-moderate consumption of 1 to 3 cups/d. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21450934/Habitual_coffee_consumption_and_risk_of_hypertension:_a_systematic_review_and_meta_analysis_of_prospective_observational_studies_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.110.004044 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -