Antiandrogens: clinical applications.J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1990 Nov 20; 37(3):349-62.JS
Antiandrogens, preventing androgen action at target tissue level, are used in the treatment of various androgen-dependent diseases. Pharmacologically these substances have either a steroidal structure, like cyproterone acetate (CPA) and spironolactone (SPL), or a non-steroidal structure, like flutamide (FLU). In women with hyperandrogenism (PCO syndrome, idiopathic hirsutism, acne), clinical benefit may be obtained with CPA, which also displays a progestational activity and an antigonadotropic effect. CPA (25-50 mg/day) is used in combination with ethinyl-estradiol (EE) (20-30 micrograms/day) in reversed sequential regimen. SPL, less effective than CPA may be employed in moderate hirsutism and acne at dosages of 100-200 mg/day. During SPL treatment menstrual irregularities are frequent: in this case an association with oral contraceptives is indicated. SPL + bromocriptine (2.5-5 mg/day) has been experienced with success in PCO syndrome. The pure antiandrogen FLU, inducing progressive increase in LH and testosterone secretion, may be used only in combination with oral contraceptives. In men antiandrogens have been tested in BPH and prostatic carcinoma. In BPH the decrease in nuclear receptors and DHT nuclear content during CPA or FLU may represent the rational base of the medical treatment. An improvement in urinary obstructive manifestation has been observed with CPA alone or associated with tamoxifen (100 mg + 100 mg day). In advanced prostatic carcinoma antiandrogens represent a good alternative to estrogen therapy with less side effects and in combination with surgical or medical castration (LH-RH analogues) achieve a complete androgen blockade. An increase in the percentage of remissions and survival has been reported.