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Gender determination of fertilized unincubated chicken eggs by infrared spectroscopic imaging.

Abstract

Each year, billions of day-old layer chicks are produced in the world. Since only female chicks are reared for egg production, the chicks must be sexed and the unwanted male layer chicks are culled. The culling of male chicks is a serious problem, both in terms of animal welfare and waste disposal. The germinal disc in fertilized but unincubated eggs contains already several thousands of blastoderm cells. The cellular DNA in birds is different for male and female chicks. The difference in DNA content between male and female chicks is around 2% and is measurable by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In this study, small amounts of blastoderm cells from 22 chicken eggs were characterized by attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopic imaging and classified by linear discriminant analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used as a reference method to determine the gender. The spectroscopic results demonstrate that male blastoderm cells exhibit a higher content of DNA than cells from female blastoderm. The spectroscopic-based gender determination led to the same result as the PCR analysis. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging allows the gender determination of unincubated eggs within a few seconds based on the accurate determination of the different DNA contents in blastoderm cells of both sexes.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Clinical Sensoring and Monitoring, Dresden University of Technology, Germany. gerald.steiner@tu-dresden.de

    , , , , ,

    Source

    Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 400:9 2011 Jul pg 2775-82

    MeSH

    Animals
    Blastoderm
    Chickens
    DNA
    Female
    Male
    Polymerase Chain Reaction
    Sex Differentiation
    Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
    Zygote

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21479544

    Citation

    Steiner, Gerald, et al. "Gender Determination of Fertilized Unincubated Chicken Eggs By Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 400, no. 9, 2011, pp. 2775-82.
    Steiner G, Bartels T, Stelling A, et al. Gender determination of fertilized unincubated chicken eggs by infrared spectroscopic imaging. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;400(9):2775-82.
    Steiner, G., Bartels, T., Stelling, A., Krautwald-Junghanns, M. E., Fuhrmann, H., Sablinskas, V., & Koch, E. (2011). Gender determination of fertilized unincubated chicken eggs by infrared spectroscopic imaging. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 400(9), pp. 2775-82. doi:10.1007/s00216-011-4941-3.
    Steiner G, et al. Gender Determination of Fertilized Unincubated Chicken Eggs By Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;400(9):2775-82. PubMed PMID: 21479544.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Gender determination of fertilized unincubated chicken eggs by infrared spectroscopic imaging. AU - Steiner,Gerald, AU - Bartels,Thomas, AU - Stelling,Allison, AU - Krautwald-Junghanns,Maria-Elisabeth, AU - Fuhrmann,Herbert, AU - Sablinskas,Valdas, AU - Koch,Edmund, Y1 - 2011/04/09/ PY - 2011/01/13/received PY - 2011/03/21/accepted PY - 2011/03/20/revised PY - 2011/4/12/entrez PY - 2011/4/12/pubmed PY - 2011/9/29/medline SP - 2775 EP - 82 JF - Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry JO - Anal Bioanal Chem VL - 400 IS - 9 N2 - Each year, billions of day-old layer chicks are produced in the world. Since only female chicks are reared for egg production, the chicks must be sexed and the unwanted male layer chicks are culled. The culling of male chicks is a serious problem, both in terms of animal welfare and waste disposal. The germinal disc in fertilized but unincubated eggs contains already several thousands of blastoderm cells. The cellular DNA in birds is different for male and female chicks. The difference in DNA content between male and female chicks is around 2% and is measurable by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In this study, small amounts of blastoderm cells from 22 chicken eggs were characterized by attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopic imaging and classified by linear discriminant analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used as a reference method to determine the gender. The spectroscopic results demonstrate that male blastoderm cells exhibit a higher content of DNA than cells from female blastoderm. The spectroscopic-based gender determination led to the same result as the PCR analysis. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging allows the gender determination of unincubated eggs within a few seconds based on the accurate determination of the different DNA contents in blastoderm cells of both sexes. SN - 1618-2650 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21479544/Gender_determination_of_fertilized_unincubated_chicken_eggs_by_infrared_spectroscopic_imaging_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-4941-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -