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Cardiorespiratory fitness, hippocampal volume, and frequency of forgetting in older adults.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to extend our earlier work to determine the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with the frequency of memory problems via its effects on the hippocampus and spatial working memory. We hypothesized that age, sex, education, body composition, and physical activity were direct determinants of fitness, which, in turn, influenced frequency of forgetting indirectly through hippocampal volume and spatial working memory.

METHOD

We conducted assessments of demographic characteristics, Body Mass Index (BMI), physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, hippocampal volume, spatial working memory, and frequency of forgetting in 158 older adults (M age = 66.49). Path analyses within a covariance modeling framework were used to examine relationships among these constructs.

RESULTS

Sex, age, BMI, and education were all significant determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness. The hypothesized path models for testing the effects of fitness on frequency of forgetting through hippocampal volume and accuracy and speed of spatial working memory all fit the data well.

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings suggest that older adults with higher levels of fitness show greater preservation of hippocampal volume, which, in turn, is associated with more accurate and faster spatial memory and fewer episodes of forgetting. Given the proportion of older adults reporting memory problems, it is necessary to determine whether improvements in fitness brought about by physical activity interventions can result in subsequent attenuation of memory problems or potentially in improvements in memory.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

    , , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    Neuropsychology 25:5 2011 Sep pg 545-53

    MeSH

    Age Factors
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Body Mass Index
    Exercise
    Female
    Hippocampus
    Humans
    Male
    Maze Learning
    Memory, Short-Term
    Middle Aged
    Models, Statistical
    Organ Size
    Physical Fitness
    Retention (Psychology)
    Sex Factors
    Space Perception

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21500917

    Citation

    Szabo, Amanda N., et al. "Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Hippocampal Volume, and Frequency of Forgetting in Older Adults." Neuropsychology, vol. 25, no. 5, 2011, pp. 545-53.
    Szabo AN, McAuley E, Erickson KI, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness, hippocampal volume, and frequency of forgetting in older adults. Neuropsychology. 2011;25(5):545-53.
    Szabo, A. N., McAuley, E., Erickson, K. I., Voss, M., Prakash, R. S., Mailey, E. L., ... Kramer, A. F. (2011). Cardiorespiratory fitness, hippocampal volume, and frequency of forgetting in older adults. Neuropsychology, 25(5), pp. 545-53. doi:10.1037/a0022733.
    Szabo AN, et al. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Hippocampal Volume, and Frequency of Forgetting in Older Adults. Neuropsychology. 2011;25(5):545-53. PubMed PMID: 21500917.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Cardiorespiratory fitness, hippocampal volume, and frequency of forgetting in older adults. AU - Szabo,Amanda N, AU - McAuley,Edward, AU - Erickson,Kirk I, AU - Voss,Michelle, AU - Prakash,Ruchika S, AU - Mailey,Emily L, AU - Wójcicki,Thomas R, AU - White,Siobhan M, AU - Gothe,Neha, AU - Olson,Erin A, AU - Kramer,Arthur F, PY - 2011/4/20/entrez PY - 2011/4/20/pubmed PY - 2012/1/10/medline SP - 545 EP - 53 JF - Neuropsychology JO - Neuropsychology VL - 25 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to extend our earlier work to determine the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with the frequency of memory problems via its effects on the hippocampus and spatial working memory. We hypothesized that age, sex, education, body composition, and physical activity were direct determinants of fitness, which, in turn, influenced frequency of forgetting indirectly through hippocampal volume and spatial working memory. METHOD: We conducted assessments of demographic characteristics, Body Mass Index (BMI), physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, hippocampal volume, spatial working memory, and frequency of forgetting in 158 older adults (M age = 66.49). Path analyses within a covariance modeling framework were used to examine relationships among these constructs. RESULTS: Sex, age, BMI, and education were all significant determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness. The hypothesized path models for testing the effects of fitness on frequency of forgetting through hippocampal volume and accuracy and speed of spatial working memory all fit the data well. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that older adults with higher levels of fitness show greater preservation of hippocampal volume, which, in turn, is associated with more accurate and faster spatial memory and fewer episodes of forgetting. Given the proportion of older adults reporting memory problems, it is necessary to determine whether improvements in fitness brought about by physical activity interventions can result in subsequent attenuation of memory problems or potentially in improvements in memory. SN - 1931-1559 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21500917/Cardiorespiratory_fitness_hippocampal_volume_and_frequency_of_forgetting_in_older_adults_ L2 - http://content.apa.org/journals/neu/25/5/545 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -