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Survey of patterns, levels, and trends of perfluorinated compounds in aquatic organisms and bird eggs from representative German ecosystems.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2011 Nov; 18(9):1457-70.ES

Abstract

PURPOSE

Samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) covering particularly the years 1994-1996, 2000-2002, and 2006-2009 were analyzed for perfluorinated compounds (PFC; mainly C4-C13 carboxylic and sulfonic acids) to gain an overview on current PFC levels and patterns in marine, limnetic, and terrestrial biota; to assess their concentrations in different trophic levels; and to investigate whether risk management measures for PFC are successful.

METHODS

Specimens, either standardized annual pooled samples (blue mussels, eelpout liver, bream liver, pigeon eggs) or individual single samples (cormorant eggs, rook eggs), were collected for the German ESB program from representative sampling sites according to documented guidelines. After appropriate extraction, PFC were quantified under ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation by HPLC/MS-MS with isotopically labeled internal standards. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.2-0.5 ng/g. Data are reported on a wet weight basis.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In most samples the predominant PFC was perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). However, in marine mussels from North and Baltic Seas, PFOS levels were mostly below the LOQ, but low residues of PFOS amide were found which declined in recent years. Livers of eelpout showed maximum concentrations of 15-25 ng/g PFOS in the period 2000-2002 and low amounts of perfluoropentanoate in all years. Beside PFOS (median 48 ng/g) several PFC could be determined in cormorant eggs sampled in 2009 from a Baltic Sea site. For a freshwater ecosystem, current PFC burdens for cormorant eggs were even higher (median 400 ng/g PFOS). Livers of bream from rivers showed concentrations of 130-260 ng/g PFOS, but for bream from a reference lake levels were only about 6 ng/g. In contrast to cormorants, eggs of rook and feral pigeon from terrestrial ecosystems displayed only low PFC burdens (up to 6 ng/g PFOS).

CONCLUSIONS

Generally, PFC levels were lower in marine than in freshwater biota. PFC burdens were higher in biota from the ESB-North Sea sites than in Baltic Sea organisms. Levels of PFC were quite high especially in top predators of both limnetic and marine ecosystems. Only low PFC levels were detected in eggs of terrestrial birds. A decrease of PFOS levels from maximum values around the year 2000 observed at least in North Sea biota may be a result of a production cease and shifts in marketing pattern.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (Fraunhofer IME), 57392 Schmallenberg, Germany. heinz.ruedel@ime.fraunhofer.deNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21505789

Citation

Rüdel, Heinz, et al. "Survey of Patterns, Levels, and Trends of Perfluorinated Compounds in Aquatic Organisms and Bird Eggs From Representative German Ecosystems." Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, vol. 18, no. 9, 2011, pp. 1457-70.
Rüdel H, Müller J, Jürling H, et al. Survey of patterns, levels, and trends of perfluorinated compounds in aquatic organisms and bird eggs from representative German ecosystems. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2011;18(9):1457-70.
Rüdel, H., Müller, J., Jürling, H., Bartel-Steinbach, M., & Koschorreck, J. (2011). Survey of patterns, levels, and trends of perfluorinated compounds in aquatic organisms and bird eggs from representative German ecosystems. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 18(9), 1457-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-011-0501-9
Rüdel H, et al. Survey of Patterns, Levels, and Trends of Perfluorinated Compounds in Aquatic Organisms and Bird Eggs From Representative German Ecosystems. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2011;18(9):1457-70. PubMed PMID: 21505789.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Survey of patterns, levels, and trends of perfluorinated compounds in aquatic organisms and bird eggs from representative German ecosystems. AU - Rüdel,Heinz, AU - Müller,Josef, AU - Jürling,Heinrich, AU - Bartel-Steinbach,Martina, AU - Koschorreck,Jan, Y1 - 2011/04/20/ PY - 2010/10/14/received PY - 2011/03/22/accepted PY - 2011/4/21/entrez PY - 2011/4/21/pubmed PY - 2011/12/13/medline SP - 1457 EP - 70 JF - Environmental science and pollution research international JO - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int VL - 18 IS - 9 N2 - PURPOSE: Samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) covering particularly the years 1994-1996, 2000-2002, and 2006-2009 were analyzed for perfluorinated compounds (PFC; mainly C4-C13 carboxylic and sulfonic acids) to gain an overview on current PFC levels and patterns in marine, limnetic, and terrestrial biota; to assess their concentrations in different trophic levels; and to investigate whether risk management measures for PFC are successful. METHODS: Specimens, either standardized annual pooled samples (blue mussels, eelpout liver, bream liver, pigeon eggs) or individual single samples (cormorant eggs, rook eggs), were collected for the German ESB program from representative sampling sites according to documented guidelines. After appropriate extraction, PFC were quantified under ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation by HPLC/MS-MS with isotopically labeled internal standards. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.2-0.5 ng/g. Data are reported on a wet weight basis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In most samples the predominant PFC was perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). However, in marine mussels from North and Baltic Seas, PFOS levels were mostly below the LOQ, but low residues of PFOS amide were found which declined in recent years. Livers of eelpout showed maximum concentrations of 15-25 ng/g PFOS in the period 2000-2002 and low amounts of perfluoropentanoate in all years. Beside PFOS (median 48 ng/g) several PFC could be determined in cormorant eggs sampled in 2009 from a Baltic Sea site. For a freshwater ecosystem, current PFC burdens for cormorant eggs were even higher (median 400 ng/g PFOS). Livers of bream from rivers showed concentrations of 130-260 ng/g PFOS, but for bream from a reference lake levels were only about 6 ng/g. In contrast to cormorants, eggs of rook and feral pigeon from terrestrial ecosystems displayed only low PFC burdens (up to 6 ng/g PFOS). CONCLUSIONS: Generally, PFC levels were lower in marine than in freshwater biota. PFC burdens were higher in biota from the ESB-North Sea sites than in Baltic Sea organisms. Levels of PFC were quite high especially in top predators of both limnetic and marine ecosystems. Only low PFC levels were detected in eggs of terrestrial birds. A decrease of PFOS levels from maximum values around the year 2000 observed at least in North Sea biota may be a result of a production cease and shifts in marketing pattern. SN - 1614-7499 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21505789/Survey_of_patterns_levels_and_trends_of_perfluorinated_compounds_in_aquatic_organisms_and_bird_eggs_from_representative_German_ecosystems_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-011-0501-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -