Differential effects of olanzapine and risperidone on plasma adiponectin levels over time: results from a 3-month prospective open-label study.Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012 Jan; 22(1):17-26.EN
Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA), especially clozapine and olanzapine, are associated with an increased metabolic risk. Recent research showed that plasma adiponectin levels, an adipocyte-derived hormone that increases insulin sensitivity, vary in the same way in schizophrenic patients as in the general population according to gender, adiposity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different SGAs differentially affect plasma adiponectin levels independent of body mass index (BMI) and MetS status. 113 patients with schizophrenia (65.5% males, 32.3years old) who were free of antipsychotic medication were enrolled in this open-label prospective single-center study and received either risperidone (n=54) or olanzapine (n=59). They were followed prospectively for 12weeks. Average daily dose was 4.4mg/day for risperidone and 17.4mg/day for olanzapine. Plasma adiponectin levels as well as fasting metabolic parameters were measured at baseline, 6weeks and 12weeks. The two groups had similar baseline demographic and metabolic characteristics. A significant increase in body weight was observed over time. This increase was significantly larger in the olanzapine group than in the risperidone group (+7.0kg versus +3.1kg, p<0.0002). Changes in fasting glucose and insulin levels and in HOMA-IR, an index of insulin resistance, were not significantly different in both treatment groups. MetS prevalence increased significantly more in the olanzapine group as compared to the risperidone groups where the prevalence did not change over time. We observed a significant (p=0.0015) treatment by time interaction showing an adiponectin increase in the risperidone-treated patients (from 10,154 to 11,124ng/ml) whereas adiponectin levels decreased in olanzapine treated patients (from 11,280 to 8988ng/ml). This effect was independent of BMI and the presence/absence of MetS. The differential effect of antipsychotic treatment (risperidone versus olanzapine) on plasma adiponectin levels over time, independent of changes in waist circumference and antipsychotic dosing, suggests a specific effect on adipose tissues, similar to what has been observed in animal models. The observed olanzapine-associated reduction in plasma adiponectin levels may at least partially contribute to the increased metabolic risk of olanzapine compared to risperidone.