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Introducing the GASP scale: a new measure of guilt and shame proneness.
J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011 May; 100(5):947-66.JP

Abstract

Although scholars agree that moral emotions are critical for deterring unethical and antisocial behavior, there is disagreement about how 2 prototypical moral emotions--guilt and shame--should be defined, differentiated, and measured. We addressed these issues by developing a new assessment--the Guilt and Shame Proneness scale (GASP)--that measures individual differences in the propensity to experience guilt and shame across a range of personal transgressions. The GASP contains 2 guilt subscales that assess negative behavior-evaluations and repair action tendencies following private transgressions and 2 shame subscales that assess negative self-evaluations (NSEs) and withdrawal action tendencies following publically exposed transgressions. Both guilt subscales were highly correlated with one another and negatively correlated with unethical decision making. Although both shame subscales were associated with relatively poor psychological functioning (e.g., neuroticism, personal distress, low self-esteem), they were only weakly correlated with one another, and their relationships with unethical decision making diverged. Whereas shame-NSE constrained unethical decision making, shame-withdraw did not. Our findings suggest that differentiating the tendency to make NSEs following publically exposed transgressions from the tendency to hide or withdraw from public view is critically important for understanding and measuring dispositional shame proneness. The GASP's ability to distinguish these 2 classes of responses represents an important advantage of the scale over existing assessments. Although further validation research is required, the present studies are promising in that they suggest the GASP has the potential to be an important measurement tool for detecting individuals susceptible to corruption and unethical behavior.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. tcohen@cmu.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Evaluation Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21517196

Citation

Cohen, Taya R., et al. "Introducing the GASP Scale: a New Measure of Guilt and Shame Proneness." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 100, no. 5, 2011, pp. 947-66.
Cohen TR, Wolf ST, Panter AT, et al. Introducing the GASP scale: a new measure of guilt and shame proneness. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011;100(5):947-66.
Cohen, T. R., Wolf, S. T., Panter, A. T., & Insko, C. A. (2011). Introducing the GASP scale: a new measure of guilt and shame proneness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(5), 947-66. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022641
Cohen TR, et al. Introducing the GASP Scale: a New Measure of Guilt and Shame Proneness. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011;100(5):947-66. PubMed PMID: 21517196.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Introducing the GASP scale: a new measure of guilt and shame proneness. AU - Cohen,Taya R, AU - Wolf,Scott T, AU - Panter,A T, AU - Insko,Chester A, PY - 2011/4/27/entrez PY - 2011/4/27/pubmed PY - 2011/9/10/medline SP - 947 EP - 66 JF - Journal of personality and social psychology JO - J Pers Soc Psychol VL - 100 IS - 5 N2 - Although scholars agree that moral emotions are critical for deterring unethical and antisocial behavior, there is disagreement about how 2 prototypical moral emotions--guilt and shame--should be defined, differentiated, and measured. We addressed these issues by developing a new assessment--the Guilt and Shame Proneness scale (GASP)--that measures individual differences in the propensity to experience guilt and shame across a range of personal transgressions. The GASP contains 2 guilt subscales that assess negative behavior-evaluations and repair action tendencies following private transgressions and 2 shame subscales that assess negative self-evaluations (NSEs) and withdrawal action tendencies following publically exposed transgressions. Both guilt subscales were highly correlated with one another and negatively correlated with unethical decision making. Although both shame subscales were associated with relatively poor psychological functioning (e.g., neuroticism, personal distress, low self-esteem), they were only weakly correlated with one another, and their relationships with unethical decision making diverged. Whereas shame-NSE constrained unethical decision making, shame-withdraw did not. Our findings suggest that differentiating the tendency to make NSEs following publically exposed transgressions from the tendency to hide or withdraw from public view is critically important for understanding and measuring dispositional shame proneness. The GASP's ability to distinguish these 2 classes of responses represents an important advantage of the scale over existing assessments. Although further validation research is required, the present studies are promising in that they suggest the GASP has the potential to be an important measurement tool for detecting individuals susceptible to corruption and unethical behavior. SN - 1939-1315 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21517196/Introducing_the_GASP_scale:_a_new_measure_of_guilt_and_shame_proneness_ L2 - http://content.apa.org/journals/psp/100/5/947 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -