A protocol for the evaluation of genotoxicity in bile of carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to lake water treated with different disinfectants.Chemosphere. 2011 Sep; 84(10):1521-6.C
A sensitive and rapid method to evaluate toxic and genotoxic properties of drinking water supplied from Lake Trasimeno (Umbria, Central Italy) was worked out analysing bile in Cyprinus carpio exposed for 20 d to lake water treated with 3 different disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) and peracetic acid (PAA). Fish were sacrificed at 0, 10 and 20 d in order to investigate the time course of these endpoints. An aliquot of bile samples was fractionated by adsorption on C(18) silica cartridges and the genotoxic potential of whole bile and of bile fractions was evaluated by the single-cell microgel-electrophoresis (comet) assay on human colonic adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2). Bile (both whole and fractionated) from specimens exposed to the three disinfectants always showed a genotoxic activity as compared to the control group. The results of this study provide evidence that all three disinfectants cause an increase in bile genotoxicity of chronically exposed fish.