Cord blood iron profile and breast milk micronutrients in maternal iron deficiency anemia.Pediatr Blood Cancer 2012; 58(2):233-8PB
Micronutrient deficiencies among pregnant women are widespread in low-income countries, including Egypt. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most frequent nutritional deficiency during pregnancy, with an impact on maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal IDA and nutritional status on birth anthropometry, cord blood iron profile and breast milk micronutrients in 50 anemic (hemoglobin <11 g/dl) and 30 healthy pregnant women.
Maternal and neonatal anthropometric measures were recorded. Hemoglobin, red blood cell (RBC) indices, and indices of iron nutriture were measured in maternal and cord blood. Breast milk minerals; iron, copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium were assessed.
Hemoglobin, RBC indices, and iron profile showed significant differences in the neonates born to anemic mothers compared to controls, particularly in moderate to severe anemia and linear correlations with maternal hemoglobin, iron, and ferritin levels were found (P < 0.01). Anthropometric measurements of anemic mothers and their neonates were positively correlated (P < 0.05). Breast milk micronutrients were significantly reduced in all anemic mothers showing significant relations with maternal serum iron (P < 0.01).
Maternal IDA wields a significant influence on maternal and fetal nutritional status. IDA during pregnancy adversely affects both cord blood iron and breast milk mineral status, particularly in moderate to severe anemia and concurrent micronutrient deficiencies occur in maternal IDA. Further investigations including larger population of pregnant women with severe anemia are needed to verify the nutritional interrelation between maternal anemia and breast milk mineral status.