Anti-inflammatory effects of fucoidan through inhibition of NF-κB, MAPK and Akt activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 microglia cells.Food Chem Toxicol 2011; 49(8):1745-52FC
Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, displays a wide variety of internal biological activities; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying fucoidan's anti-inflammatory activity remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of fucoidan on production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in BV2 microglia. Our data indicated that fucoidan treatment significantly inhibited excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. It also attenuated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Moreover, fucoidan exhibited anti-inflammatory properties by suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and down-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and AKT pathways. These finding suggest that fucoidan may offer substantial therapeutic potential for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that are accompanied by microglial activation.