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Comparison of fingolimod with interferon beta-1a in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomised extension of the TRANSFORMS study.
Lancet Neurol. 2011 Jun; 10(6):520-9.LN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In a 12-month phase 3 study in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), TRANSFORMS, fingolimod showed greater efficacy on relapse rates and MRI outcomes compared with interferon beta-1a. We had two aims in our extension: to compare year 2 with year 1 in the switched patients to assess the effect of a change from interferon beta-1a to fingolimod, and to compare over 24 months the treatment groups as originally randomised to assess the effect of delaying the start of treatment with fingolimod.

METHODS

Patients randomly assigned to receive 0.5 mg or 1.25 mg daily oral fingolimod in the core study continued with the same treatment in our extension; patients who originally received 30 μg weekly intramuscular interferon beta-1a were randomly reassigned (1:1) to receive either 0.5 mg or 1.25 mg fingolimod. The initial randomisation and dose of fingolimod assigned for the extension remained masked to the patients and investigators. As in the core study, re-randomisation was done centrally in blocks of six and stratified according to site. Our efficacy endpoints were annualised relapse rate (ARR), disability progression, and MRI outcomes. Our within-group analyses were based on the intention-to-treat and safety populations that entered our extension study. Our between-group analyses were based on the intention-to-treat and safety populations from the core study. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00340834.

FINDINGS

1027 patients entered our extension and received the study drug, and 882 completed 24 months of treatment. Patients receiving continuous fingolimod showed persistent benefits in ARR (0.5 mg fingolimod [n=356], 0.12 [95% CI 0.08-0.17] in months 0-12 vs 0.11 [0.08-0.16] in months 13-24; 1.25 mg fingolimod [n=330], 0.15 [0.10-0.21] vs 0.11 [0.08-0.16]; however, in patients who initially received interferon beta-1a, ARR was lower after switching to fingolimod compared with the previous 12 months (interferon beta-1a to 0.5 mg fingolimod [n=167], 0.31 [95% CI 0.22-0.43] in months 0-12 vs 0.22 [0.15-0.31], in months 13-24 p=0.049; interferon beta-1a to 1.25 mg fingolimod [n=174], 0.29 [0.20-0.40] vs 0.18 [0.12-0.27], p=0.024). After switching to fingolimod, numbers of new or newly enlarging T2 and gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing T1 lesions were significantly reduced compared with the previous 12 months of interferon beta-1a therapy (p<0.0001 for T2 lesions at both doses; p=0.002 for T1 at 0.5 mg; p=0.011 for T1 at 1.25 mg), and the pattern of adverse events shifted towards that typical for fingolimod. Over 24 months, in continuous fingolimod groups compared with the group that switched from interferon beta-1a to fingolimod, we recorded lower ARRs (0.18 [95% CI 0.14-0.22] for 0.5 mg; 0.20 [0.16-0.25] for 1.25 mg; 0.33 [0.27-0.39] for the switch group; p<0.0001 for both comparisons), fewer new or newly enlarged T2 lesions (p=0.035 for 0.5 mg, p=0.068 for 1.25 mg), and fewer patients with Gd-enhancing T1 lesions (p=0.001 for 0.5 mg fingolimod vs switch group; p=0.002 for 1.25 mg fingolimod vs switch group). There was no benefit on disability progression.

INTERPRETATION

Switching from interferon beta-1a to fingolimod led to enhanced efficacy with no unexpected safety concerns. Compared with patients switched from interferon beta-1a to fingolimod, continuous treatment with fingolimod for 2 years provides a sustained treatment effect with improved clinical and MRI outcomes.

FUNDING

Novartis Pharma AG.

Authors+Show Affiliations

St Luke's Medical Center, Center for Neurological Disorders, Milwaukee, WI 53215, USA. bokhatri@aol.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21571593

Citation

Khatri, Bhupendra, et al. "Comparison of Fingolimod With Interferon Beta-1a in Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis: a Randomised Extension of the TRANSFORMS Study." The Lancet. Neurology, vol. 10, no. 6, 2011, pp. 520-9.
Khatri B, Barkhof F, Comi G, et al. Comparison of fingolimod with interferon beta-1a in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomised extension of the TRANSFORMS study. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10(6):520-9.
Khatri, B., Barkhof, F., Comi, G., Hartung, H. P., Kappos, L., Montalban, X., Pelletier, J., Stites, T., Wu, S., Holdbrook, F., Zhang-Auberson, L., Francis, G., & Cohen, J. A. (2011). Comparison of fingolimod with interferon beta-1a in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomised extension of the TRANSFORMS study. The Lancet. Neurology, 10(6), 520-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70099-0
Khatri B, et al. Comparison of Fingolimod With Interferon Beta-1a in Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis: a Randomised Extension of the TRANSFORMS Study. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10(6):520-9. PubMed PMID: 21571593.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparison of fingolimod with interferon beta-1a in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomised extension of the TRANSFORMS study. AU - Khatri,Bhupendra, AU - Barkhof,Frederik, AU - Comi,Giancarlo, AU - Hartung,Hans-Peter, AU - Kappos,Ludwig, AU - Montalban,Xavier, AU - Pelletier,Jean, AU - Stites,Tracy, AU - Wu,Stacy, AU - Holdbrook,Fred, AU - Zhang-Auberson,Lixin, AU - Francis,Gordon, AU - Cohen,Jeffrey A, AU - ,, Y1 - 2011/05/13/ PY - 2011/5/17/entrez PY - 2011/5/17/pubmed PY - 2011/7/23/medline SP - 520 EP - 9 JF - The Lancet. Neurology JO - Lancet Neurol VL - 10 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: In a 12-month phase 3 study in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), TRANSFORMS, fingolimod showed greater efficacy on relapse rates and MRI outcomes compared with interferon beta-1a. We had two aims in our extension: to compare year 2 with year 1 in the switched patients to assess the effect of a change from interferon beta-1a to fingolimod, and to compare over 24 months the treatment groups as originally randomised to assess the effect of delaying the start of treatment with fingolimod. METHODS: Patients randomly assigned to receive 0.5 mg or 1.25 mg daily oral fingolimod in the core study continued with the same treatment in our extension; patients who originally received 30 μg weekly intramuscular interferon beta-1a were randomly reassigned (1:1) to receive either 0.5 mg or 1.25 mg fingolimod. The initial randomisation and dose of fingolimod assigned for the extension remained masked to the patients and investigators. As in the core study, re-randomisation was done centrally in blocks of six and stratified according to site. Our efficacy endpoints were annualised relapse rate (ARR), disability progression, and MRI outcomes. Our within-group analyses were based on the intention-to-treat and safety populations that entered our extension study. Our between-group analyses were based on the intention-to-treat and safety populations from the core study. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00340834. FINDINGS: 1027 patients entered our extension and received the study drug, and 882 completed 24 months of treatment. Patients receiving continuous fingolimod showed persistent benefits in ARR (0.5 mg fingolimod [n=356], 0.12 [95% CI 0.08-0.17] in months 0-12 vs 0.11 [0.08-0.16] in months 13-24; 1.25 mg fingolimod [n=330], 0.15 [0.10-0.21] vs 0.11 [0.08-0.16]; however, in patients who initially received interferon beta-1a, ARR was lower after switching to fingolimod compared with the previous 12 months (interferon beta-1a to 0.5 mg fingolimod [n=167], 0.31 [95% CI 0.22-0.43] in months 0-12 vs 0.22 [0.15-0.31], in months 13-24 p=0.049; interferon beta-1a to 1.25 mg fingolimod [n=174], 0.29 [0.20-0.40] vs 0.18 [0.12-0.27], p=0.024). After switching to fingolimod, numbers of new or newly enlarging T2 and gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing T1 lesions were significantly reduced compared with the previous 12 months of interferon beta-1a therapy (p<0.0001 for T2 lesions at both doses; p=0.002 for T1 at 0.5 mg; p=0.011 for T1 at 1.25 mg), and the pattern of adverse events shifted towards that typical for fingolimod. Over 24 months, in continuous fingolimod groups compared with the group that switched from interferon beta-1a to fingolimod, we recorded lower ARRs (0.18 [95% CI 0.14-0.22] for 0.5 mg; 0.20 [0.16-0.25] for 1.25 mg; 0.33 [0.27-0.39] for the switch group; p<0.0001 for both comparisons), fewer new or newly enlarged T2 lesions (p=0.035 for 0.5 mg, p=0.068 for 1.25 mg), and fewer patients with Gd-enhancing T1 lesions (p=0.001 for 0.5 mg fingolimod vs switch group; p=0.002 for 1.25 mg fingolimod vs switch group). There was no benefit on disability progression. INTERPRETATION: Switching from interferon beta-1a to fingolimod led to enhanced efficacy with no unexpected safety concerns. Compared with patients switched from interferon beta-1a to fingolimod, continuous treatment with fingolimod for 2 years provides a sustained treatment effect with improved clinical and MRI outcomes. FUNDING: Novartis Pharma AG. SN - 1474-4465 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21571593/Comparison_of_fingolimod_with_interferon_beta_1a_in_relapsing_remitting_multiple_sclerosis:_a_randomised_extension_of_the_TRANSFORMS_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1474-4422(11)70099-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -