Oxaliplatin transport mediated by organic cation/carnitine transporters OCTN1 and OCTN2 in overexpressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells and rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011 Aug; 338(2):537-47.JP
The organic cation/carnitine transporters OCTN1 and OCTN2 are related to other organic cation transporters (OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3) known for transporting oxaliplatin, an anticancer drug with dose-limiting neurotoxicity. In this study, we sought to determine whether OCTN1 and OCTN2 also transported oxaliplatin and to characterize their functional expression and contributions to its neuronal accumulation and neurotoxicity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons relative to those of OCTs. [(14)C]Oxaliplatin uptake, platinum accumulation, and cytotoxicity were determined in OCTN-overexpressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and primary cultures of rat DRG neurons. Levels of mRNA and functional activities of rat (r)Octns and rOcts in rat DRG tissue and primary cultures were characterized using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and uptake of model OCT/OCTN substrates, including [(3)H]1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) (OCT1-3), [(14)C]tetraethylammonium bromide (TEA(+)) (OCT1-3 and OCTN1/2), [(3)H]ergothioneine (OCTN1), and [(3)H]l-carnitine (OCTN2). HEK293 cells overexpressing rOctn1, rOctn2, human OCTN1, and human OCTN2 showed increased uptake and cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin compared with mock-transfected HEK293 controls; in addition, both uptake and cytotoxicity were inhibited by ergothioneine and L-carnitine. The uptake of ergothioneine mediated by OCTN1 and of L-carnitine mediated by OCTN2 was decreased during oxaliplatin exposure. rOctn1 and rOctn2 mRNA was readily detected in rat DRG tissue, and they were functionally active in cultured rat DRG neurons, more so than rOct1, rOct2, or rOct3. DRG neuronal accumulation of [(14)C]oxaliplatin and platinum during oxaliplatin exposure depended on time, concentration, temperature, and sodium and was inhibited by ergothioneine and to a lesser extent by L-carnitine but not by MPP(+). Loss of DRG neuronal viability during oxaliplatin exposure was inhibited by ergothioneine but not by L-carnitine or MPP(+). OCTN1 and OCTN2 both transport oxaliplatin and are functionally expressed by DRG neurons. OCTN1-mediated transport of oxaliplatin appears to contribute to its neuronal accumulation and treatment-limiting neurotoxicity more so than OCTN2 or OCTs.