Development and characterization of mucoadhesive microspheres for nasal delivery of ketorolac.Pharmazie. 2011 Apr; 66(4):249-57.P
The objective of the present investigation was to prepare mucoadhesive microspheres of ketorolac for nasal administration by means of a solvent evaporation technique using carbopol (CP), polycarbophil (PL) and chitosan (CS) as mucoadhesive polymers. The prepared microspheres were characterized for morphology, swelling behavior, mucoadhesion, interaction studies, drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, release kinetics, and ex vivo nasal cilio toxicity studies. The effects of various process variables on the particle size of the microspheres were investigated. Drug encapsulation efficiency and particle size of the microspheres ranged from 52-78% w/w and 14-46 microm respectively. Interaction studies revealed that there were no drug-polymer interactions. The in vitro release profiles showed prolonged-release of the drug. In vitro release data showed a good fit with the Higuchi model, and indicated Fickian diffusion. No severe damage was found to the integrity of nasal mucosa after ex vivo experiments.