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A vegetarian dietary pattern as a nutrient-dense approach to weight management: an analysis of the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2004.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Population-based studies have shown that vegetarians have lower body mass index than nonvegetarians, suggesting that vegetarian diet plans may be an approach for weight management. However, a perception exists that vegetarian diets are deficient in certain nutrients.

OBJECTIVE

To compare dietary quality of vegetarians, nonvegetarians, and dieters, and to test the hypothesis that a vegetarian diet would not compromise nutrient intake when used to manage body weight.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004) dietary and anthropometric data. Diet quality was determined using United States Department of Agriculture's Healthy Eating Index 2005. Participants included adults aged 19 years and older, excluding pregnant and lactating women (N = 13,292). Lacto-ovo vegetarian diets were portrayed by intakes of participants who did not eat meat, poultry, or fish on the day of the survey (n = 851). Weight-loss diets were portrayed by intakes of participants who consumed 500 kcal less than their estimated energy requirements (n = 4,635). Mean nutrient intakes and body mass indexes were adjusted for energy, sex, and ethnicity. Using analysis of variance, all vegetarians were compared to all nonvegetarians, dieting vegetarians to dieting nonvegetarians, and nondieting vegetarians to nondieting nonvegetarians.

RESULTS

Mean intakes of fiber, vitamins A, C, and E, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, calcium, magnesium, and iron were higher for all vegetarians than for all nonvegetarians. Although vegetarian intakes of vitamin E, vitamin A, and magnesium exceeded that of nonvegetarians (8.3 ± 0.3 vs 7.0 ± 0.1 mg; 718 ± 28 vs 603 ± 10 μg; 322 ± 5 vs 281 ± 2 mg), both groups had intakes that were less than desired. The Healthy Eating Index score did not differ for all vegetarians compared to all nonvegetarians (50.5 ± 0.88 vs 50.1 ± 0.33, P = 0.6).

CONCLUSIONS

These findings suggest that vegetarian diets are nutrient dense, consistent with dietary guidelines, and could be recommended for weight management without compromising diet quality.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    PlantWise Nutrition Consulting, LLC, Plainwell, MI, USA. plantwisenutrition@yahoo.com

    , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Anthropometry
    Body Mass Index
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Diet
    Diet, Reducing
    Diet, Vegetarian
    Dietary Fiber
    Dietary Proteins
    Energy Intake
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Micronutrients
    Nutrition Policy
    Nutrition Surveys
    Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
    Nutritive Value
    Weight Loss
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21616194

    Citation

    Farmer, Bonnie, et al. "A Vegetarian Dietary Pattern as a Nutrient-dense Approach to Weight Management: an Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 111, no. 6, 2011, pp. 819-27.
    Farmer B, Larson BT, Fulgoni VL, et al. A vegetarian dietary pattern as a nutrient-dense approach to weight management: an analysis of the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2004. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(6):819-27.
    Farmer, B., Larson, B. T., Fulgoni, V. L., Rainville, A. J., & Liepa, G. U. (2011). A vegetarian dietary pattern as a nutrient-dense approach to weight management: an analysis of the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2004. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111(6), pp. 819-27. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2011.03.012.
    Farmer B, et al. A Vegetarian Dietary Pattern as a Nutrient-dense Approach to Weight Management: an Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(6):819-27. PubMed PMID: 21616194.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - A vegetarian dietary pattern as a nutrient-dense approach to weight management: an analysis of the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2004. AU - Farmer,Bonnie, AU - Larson,Brian T, AU - Fulgoni,Victor L,3rd AU - Rainville,Alice J, AU - Liepa,George U, PY - 2010/02/24/received PY - 2010/12/15/accepted PY - 2011/5/28/entrez PY - 2011/5/28/pubmed PY - 2011/7/22/medline SP - 819 EP - 27 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 111 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have shown that vegetarians have lower body mass index than nonvegetarians, suggesting that vegetarian diet plans may be an approach for weight management. However, a perception exists that vegetarian diets are deficient in certain nutrients. OBJECTIVE: To compare dietary quality of vegetarians, nonvegetarians, and dieters, and to test the hypothesis that a vegetarian diet would not compromise nutrient intake when used to manage body weight. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004) dietary and anthropometric data. Diet quality was determined using United States Department of Agriculture's Healthy Eating Index 2005. Participants included adults aged 19 years and older, excluding pregnant and lactating women (N = 13,292). Lacto-ovo vegetarian diets were portrayed by intakes of participants who did not eat meat, poultry, or fish on the day of the survey (n = 851). Weight-loss diets were portrayed by intakes of participants who consumed 500 kcal less than their estimated energy requirements (n = 4,635). Mean nutrient intakes and body mass indexes were adjusted for energy, sex, and ethnicity. Using analysis of variance, all vegetarians were compared to all nonvegetarians, dieting vegetarians to dieting nonvegetarians, and nondieting vegetarians to nondieting nonvegetarians. RESULTS: Mean intakes of fiber, vitamins A, C, and E, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, calcium, magnesium, and iron were higher for all vegetarians than for all nonvegetarians. Although vegetarian intakes of vitamin E, vitamin A, and magnesium exceeded that of nonvegetarians (8.3 ± 0.3 vs 7.0 ± 0.1 mg; 718 ± 28 vs 603 ± 10 μg; 322 ± 5 vs 281 ± 2 mg), both groups had intakes that were less than desired. The Healthy Eating Index score did not differ for all vegetarians compared to all nonvegetarians (50.5 ± 0.88 vs 50.1 ± 0.33, P = 0.6). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that vegetarian diets are nutrient dense, consistent with dietary guidelines, and could be recommended for weight management without compromising diet quality. SN - 1878-3570 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21616194/A_vegetarian_dietary_pattern_as_a_nutrient_dense_approach_to_weight_management:_an_analysis_of_the_national_health_and_nutrition_examination_survey_1999_2004_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-8223(11)00275-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -